By asking whether caffeine consumption patterns had changed in the selleck past 6 months or 5 years, an attempt was made to discern whether patients with more advanced fibrosis were decreasing
their caffeine intake. Most patients did not report a change in caffeine consumption patterns over time, but this is clearly an imperfect measure of this trend. Importantly, however, of patients reporting a change in intake over the past 5 years, there were similar numbers with and without advanced fibrosis, suggesting that worsening liver disease was not the impetus to alter consumption of caffeine. Other factors that may affect caffeine consumption such as socioeconomic status, education level, and recreational drug use, were also not considered in this analysis. A useful instrument for a comprehensive evaluation of caffeine consumption was developed, which proved easy to use and highly reproducible. Caffeine consumption was associated with a lower risk of advanced liver fibrosis, particularly in patients with HCV infection;
however, the data suggest that a beneficial effect requires caffeine consumption above a threshold of approximately 2 coffee-cup equivalents per day. The effect seemed to be most pronounced with caffeinated coffee as opposed to other caffeine-containing products. With accumulating data on the beneficial role of coffee and AZD1208 molecular weight caffeine in liver disease, as well as the supporting in vitro data, it may now be time to consider Tobramycin a prospective study of coffee or caffeine on hepatic fibrogenesis. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. “
“In this study, we analyzed the rates and patterns of recurrences in hepatocellular carcinoma
(HCC) patients who had achieved complete remission (CR) by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and also examined the differences of recurrence patterns between TACE-treated and RFA-treated groups. We followed 309 consecutive HCC patients who achieved CR following TACE (n = 220) or RFA (n = 89) for a median of 68 months. Recurrence patterns were classified as local recurrence and secondary tumor according to location of recurrence (≤2 cm and >2 cm from primary tumor). Recurred HCC had been found in 231 out of 309 patients (75%) with CR by TACE or RFA; 112 local recurrences (48%), 100 secondary tumor (43%) and 19 both (9%). The cumulative recurrence rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 22%, 64% and 79%, respectively.