Chest radiography and rapid viral testing may be helpful when the

Chest radiography and rapid viral testing may be helpful when the diagnosis is unclear. The most likely etiology depends on the age of the child. Viral and Streptococcus pneumoniae find more infections are most common in preschool-aged children, whereas Mycoplasma

pneumoniae is common in older children. The decision to treat with antibiotics is challenging, especially with the increasing prevalence of viral and bacterial coinfections. Preschool-aged children with uncomplicated bacterial pneumonia should be treated with amoxicillin. Macrolides are first-line agents in older children. Immunization with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is important in reducing the severity of childhood pneumococcal infections. (Am BMS-777607 supplier Fam Physician. 2012;86(7):661-667. Copyright (c) 2012 American Academy of Family Physicians.)”
“Since the introduction of laser in clinical practice, different wavelengths have been used for oral surgery on the basis of the different characteristics and affinities of each one. The aim of this study was a comparison of different

laser wavelengths in relation to both thermal increase and “”histological quality”" in a model of soft tissue surgery procedures. Thermal evaluation was realized, during laser-assisted surgery excision performed on a bovine tongue, by a thermal camera device to evaluate thermal increase on the surface of the sample and with four thermocouples to evaluate thermal increase on the depth of the specimen; temperature was recorded before starting surgical procedure and at the peak of every excision.

The quality of excision, in terms of tissue damage and regularity, was realized by two blind examiners on the basis of established criteria. The highest superficial thermal increase was recorded for Superpulse 5-W CO2 laser, the lowest one for Er:YAG laser. The highest in depth thermal increase was recorded for 5 W Diode laser, the lowest one for Er:YAG laser. The best TPX-0005 supplier quality of incision was obtained with a 3-W CO2 laser and 3-W diode laser; epithelial, stromal, and vascular damages were evaluated with different degrees for all the used wavelengths with the best result, in terms of “”tissue respect,”" for Er:YAG laser. In all the surgical procedures performed, thermal increase was evaluated until the end of the procedure; at remaining tissue level, thermal decrease was evaluable in the few seconds after surgery. The Er:YAG laser was the device with a lower influence on thermal increase; CO2 and diode lasers revealed a good histological quality. Further studies may be necessary to test the reliability of laser devices for the excision of all the types of specimens needing histological evaluation and diagnosis.”
“Hypothermia is used for its neuroprotective effect in perinatal asphyxia. Mechanical ventilation is often used as a supportive therapy for severe asphyxiated infants who can present various degrees of respiratory failure.

e , electrotaxis) In tissues, physiological

chemical gra

e., electrotaxis). In tissues, physiological

chemical gradients and dcEF can potentially co-exist and the two guiding mechanisms may direct cell migration in a coordinated manner. Recently, microfluidic devices that can precisely configure chemical gradients or dcEF have been increasingly developed and used for chemotaxis and electrotaxis studies. However, a microfluidic device that can configure controlled co-existing chemical gradients and dcEF that would allow quantitative cell migration analysis in complex electrochemical guiding environments is not available. In this study, we developed a polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic device that can generate better controlled single or co-existing chemical gradients and click here dcEF. Using this device, we showed chemotactic migration of T cells toward a chemokine CCL19 gradient or electrotactic migration toward the cathode of an applied dcEF. Furthermore, T cells migrated more strongly toward the cathode of a dcEF in the presence of a competing CCL19 gradient, suggesting the higher electrotactic attraction. Taken together, the developed microfluidic device offers a new experimental tool for studying chemical and electrical guidance for cell migration, and our current results with T cells

provide interesting new insights of immune cell migration in complex guiding environments. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. []“
“Although it is well-known that defective CX-6258 signaling of the 5-HT system in the brain and stressful stimuli can cause psychological disorders, their combined effects on male male aggression and sexual attractiveness remain unknown. Our research aimed at examining such effects using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) knockout male mice vs. a rat- or rat scent-based chronic stress

model. Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) male mice were placed individually into the rat home cage (rat), a cage containing soiled rat bedding (rat scent) or a cage containing fresh bedding (control) for 5h every other day for 56 consecutive days. In Tph2(+/+) male selleck chemicals mice, rat-exposure decreased male male aggression and sexual attractiveness of urine odor relative to either rat scent-exposure or control; and rat scent-exposure decreased aggression rather than sexual attractiveness of urine odor compared with control. However, such dose-dependent and long-lasting behavioral inhibitory effects vanished in Tph2(-/-) male mice. RT-PCR assay further revealed that putative regulatory genes, such as AR, ER alpha and GluR4 in the prefrontal cortex, and TrkB-Tc and 5-HTR1A in the hippocampus, were down-regulated at the mRNA level in either rat- or rat scent-exposed Tph2(+/+) male mice, but partially in the Tph2(-/-) ones.

1063/1 3656002]”
“Application of softeners on fabrics can us

“Application of softeners on fabrics can usually increase the fabric pilling tendency and it is difficult to obtain a Torin 2 soft handle fabric without pilling during wearing. This research was conducted to use various chemicals to reduce pilling with reasonable softness on the cotton/polyester knitted fabric. Diverse composites of the water-based polyurethane resin (PU), citric acid (CA) as a

crosslinking agent and silicone-based softener were selected and applied on the fabric through conventional pad-dry-cure method. The characteristics of the treated fabrics including pilling rate, pilling density, water droplet adsorption time, bending length, crease recovery angle, tensile strength, and water contact angle were examined and reported. Application of the polyurethane resin along with citric acid reduced the fabric pilling. However, co-application of resin, CA, and softener improved the fabric crease recovery angle,

bending length, and water droplet adsorption time. The preferred formulation was 20 g L-1 CA, 25 g L-1PU resin, and 20 g L-1 silicone softener. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, selleck chemicals Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“In this study, 272 beef heifers were studied from just before their first breeding season (October 15, 2003), through their second breeding season, and until just after they had weaned their first calves in March, 2005. This study was performed concurrently with another study testing the economic effects of an estrous synchronization protocol using PG. Reproductive tract scoring (RTS) by rectal palpation was performed on the group of heifers 1 d before the onset of their first breeding season. The effect of RTS on several fertility and production outcomes was tested, and the association of RTS with the outcomes was compared with that of other input variables such as BW, age, BCS, and Kleiber ratio GSK923295 nmr using multiple or univariable linear, logistic, or Cox regression. Area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic

analysis was used to compare the ability of different input variables to predict pregnancy outcome. After adjustment for BW and age, RTS was positively associated with pregnancy rate to the 50-d AI season (P < 0.01), calf weaning weight (r = 0.22, P < 0.01), and pregnancy rate to the subsequent breeding season (P < 0.01), and negatively associated with days to calving (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). Reproductive tract scoring was a better predictor of fertility than was Kleiber ratio and similar in its prediction of calf weaning weight. It was concluded from this study that RTS is a predictor of heifer fertility, compares well with other traits used as a predictor of production outcomes, and is likely to be a good predictor of lifetime production of the cow.”
“Reading epilepsy is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by reading. Several cases have been described in the literature, but the pathophysiological processes vary widely and remain unclear.

3% (-0 63) over 3 (Y1 -> Y4), and -4 5% (-0 78) over 4 years

3% (-0.63) over 3 (Y1 -> Y4), and -4.5% (-0.78) over 4 years. Spearman correlations were 0.33 for Y1 -> Y2 vs BL -> Y4, and 0.17 for BL -> Y1 vs Y2 -> Y4 change. Percent agreement between knees showing progression during Y1 -> Y2 vs BL -> Y4 was 59%, and 64% for BL -> Y1 vs

Y2 -> Y4. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.66 for using Y1 -> Y2 to predict BL -> Y4, and 0.59 for using BL -> Y1 to predict Y2 -> Y4 change.

Conclusion: Weak to moderate correlations and agreement were observed between individual short- vs long-term cartilage loss, and between initial and subsequent observation periods. Hence, longer observation periods are recommended to achieve robust results on cartilage loss in individual knees. At cohort and subcohort level (e.g., KLG3 vs KLG2 knees), the mean cartilage loss increased almost linearly with the length of the observation BKM120 manufacturer period and was constant throughout the study. (C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

To evaluate recent trials and reviews of physical modalities and conservative treatments for selected upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions for evidence supporting their use.

Recent findings


evidence suggests that many localized tendinopathies are related more to degenerative than inflammatory processes. With this realization, there is increased AY 22989 emphasis on

finding new modalities to treat tendinopathies and other localized musculoskeletal conditions that rely on other than anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Although there is Copanlisib solubility dmso good evidence to support the short-term benefits of corticosteroid injections, convincing evidence in support of other conservative treatments and modalities is generally lacking. Extracorpal shock wave therapy may have significant clinical benefit for calcific tendinitis; however, it requires intravenous sedation in most cases and does not appear to be effective in lateral epicondylitis. The most consistent positive treatment effects for rotator cuff tendinitis were achieved by ultrasound-guided subacromial corticosteroid injection as well as manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise.


Although there is evidence supporting the use of several different physical modalities and conservative treatments for upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions, there is a strong need for larger, higher quality randomized controlled trials. Although most studies are able to demonstrate short-term benefits, there is a lack of high-quality data demonstrating that these conservative treatments have long-term benefits, particularly, with regard to functional outcomes.”
“Objective: Degeneration in cruciate ligaments results from abnormal biomechanical stress and the aging process. Such degeneration is a common outcome in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and contributes to the progression of OA.

The formation of patterns permits the maintenance of larger overa

The formation of patterns permits the maintenance of larger overall biomass at low rainfall rates compared with homogeneous vegetation. This results in a bias of models run at larger scales neglecting subgrid-scale variability. In the present study, we investigate the question whether subgrid-scale heterogeneity can be parameterized as the outcome of optimal partitioning between bare soil and vegetated area. We find that a two-box model

reproduces the time-averaged biomass of the patterns emerging in a 100 x 100 grid model if the vegetated fraction is optimized for maximum entropy production (MEP). This suggests that the proposed optimality-based representation of subgrid-scale heterogeneity may be generally applicable to different systems Y-27632 and at different scales. The implications for our understanding of self-organized behaviour and its

modelling are discussed.”
“Background: this website There is very limited literature on alcohol use among the elderly and little is known about the impact it has on family and caregivers, especially in low and middle income countries.

Aim: To estimate the independent effect of heavy alcohol use among the elderly on the psychological health of their co-residents.

Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from the comprehensive cross-sectional survey of the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme in the Dominican Republic. The characteristics of the elderly participants as well as the co-residents were

described. Selleckchem VX-680 The independent association of heavy drinking among the participants with psychological morbidity in their co-residents was estimated. Different models were generated to rule out potential mediating effects of disability and behavioural symptoms.

Results: Prevalence of heavy alcohol use in the elderly in Dominican Republic was 10.6%. There was a statistically significant independent effect of heavy alcohol use by the elderly on their co-residents mental health (PR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.01) which was not accounted by disability (Sobel-Goodman test, p = 0.15). Severity of psychological and behavioural symptoms partially (29.1% of the total effect) explained this association (Sobel-Goodman mediation test, p = 0.006).

Conclusions: Health services for the elderly in low and middle income countries will have to be configured around detection of alcohol problems among the elderly as well as offering appropriate support to their co-residents. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common neoplasm among the Caucasian population of the western world. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced p53 activation promotes cutaneous pigmentation by increasing transcriptional activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the skin.

Methods: Routinely collected data from 3 pediatric ART programs i

Methods: Routinely collected data from 3 pediatric ART programs in rural and urban Zambia were obtained from medical records. Participants included human immunodeficiency virus-infected children <15 years of age presenting for care between August 2004 and July 2008. Characteristics at presentation, time to ART initiation, and treatment response were compared between urban and rural children.

Results: A total of 863 children were enrolled (562 urban and 301 rural). At presentation, children in rural clinics were significantly younger (3.4 vs. 6.5 years), had higher CD4(+) T-cell percentages p38 MAPK activation (18.0% vs. 12.8%), less

advanced disease (47.5% vs. 62.3% in World Health Organization stage 3/4), lower weight-for-age Z-scores (-2.8 vs. -2.3), and traveled greater distances (29 vs. 2 km). Rural children eligible for ART at presentation took longer to initiate treatment (3.6 vs. 0.9 months); no differences were found in time to ART initiation among children

ineligible at presentation (15.4 vs. 12.1 months). For the 607 children initiating ART, clinical and immunologic status improved in both urban and rural clinics. Mortality was highest in the first 90 days of treatment and was higher at all times in rural clinics.

Conclusions: The findings support expansion of ART programs into rural areas to increase access to treatment services and reduce inequities.”
“Chronic hepatitis selleck C infection leads to increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Because engulfment of apoptotic bodies (ABs) by hepatic stellate cells (HSC) is profibrogenic, we compared the effects of ABs derived from hepatitis C virus (HCV)-negative vs HCV-infected (Con1+) Huh7 hepatoblastoma cells on fibrogenic and activation-related mRNA expression by a human HSC line (LX2). Uptake of Huh7(Con1+) ABs by LX2 cells dose dependently upregulated profibrotic genes (COL1A1, TGFB1; TIMP1; TIMP2). When normalized to the apoptotic cytokeratin-18 M30 neoepitope, HCV(+) ABs exhibited a more pronounced effect than HCV(-) ABs. In contrast, neither noningested

ABs nor nucleic acids obtained from Huh7, Huh7(Con1+) or HepG2 cells triggered those AB-dependent effects. Both the engulfment of Huh7(Con1+) ABs and their effects were partially blocked by masking of phosphatidylserine with annexin V and completely inhibited EPZ5676 datasheet by the class-A scavenger receptor ligand, polyinosinic acid. Our findings demonstrate that AB uptake stimulates HSCs and indicate that HCV infection leads to amplified fibrogenic mRNA expression and enhanced HSC activation.”
“Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) resulting from deficient production of thyroid hormone is one of the most commonly encountered diseases in pediatric endocrinology. Thyroid hormones play a crucial role in normal cerebral and growth maturation. These harmful effects on the cerebral and growth maturation can be prevented by early diagnosis and sufficient treatment in the first weeks of life.

The ultrastructural analysis revealed that the acrosome was bette

The ultrastructural analysis revealed that the acrosome was better preserved after freezing in the SOD 100 U/ml and GSH 2 and 5 mM (p < 0.05) groups than the other groups, whereas mitochondria Bucladesine price in both the control group and the 7 mM GSH group suffered the greatest damage. The plasma membrane remained preserved after freezing, regardless of the group. For in vivo fertilization, the SOD group achieved better results than the GSH group (p > 0.05). It can therefore be concluded that the addition of SOD 100

U/ml and GSH 2 and 5 mM preserves the acrosome integrity of frozen ram spermatozoa, while the addition of SOD 100 U/ml to Tris egg-yolk extender offers protection to the membranes of sperm cells after thawing.”
“Until recently, the sonographic visualization of pulmonary and pleural diseases was considered a poorly accessible method, due to the SIS3 chemical structure inability of sound to penetrate air-filled lung. Despite its limitations, lung ultrasonography is becoming an important diagnostic tool in a

growing number of pathological situations such as pneumonia, atelectasis, interstitial-alveolar syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax and pleural effusion. The low sensitivity of CXR and the difficulties of performing CT make this technique invaluable for bedside use in the intensive care unit. Lung ultrasonography is an easily repeatable and radiation-free technique, and therefore, an attractive imaging tool for use on a daily basis, especially in the management of critically ill patients.”
“Purpose: To develop and evaluation ascorbyl palmitate niosomes in order to achieve a transdermal

and/or systemic nanocarier of doxycycline.

Methods: Vesicles were formed from ascorbyl palmitate in combination with cholesterol and a negatively charged lipid, dicetyl phosphate. Niosomes were prepared by film hydration method followed by sonication in which aqueous doxycycline solution (in phosphate buffered saline) was encapsulated in the aqueous regions of the vesicles. The vesicles were GDC-0973 evaluated for entrapment and in vitro release as well as for their thermal properties and shape by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The effect of process conditions – sonication time, pH, hydration temperature and centrifuge speed – on niosome properties was investigated.

Results: DSC of pure lipids, vesicles dispersion and mixture of lipids confirmed the formation of niosomes. Other results show that >90% of drug was entrapped in the vesicles and the vesicles were spherical in shape. Drug release from the vesicles was slow (<60% after 8 h). Nanovesicle size was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by sonication time and hydration pH.

Finally, the attenuation behavior of stress waves and particle ve

Finally, the attenuation behavior of stress waves and particle velocities in the depth of the target

is analyzed, and it indicates an exponential decay. The corresponding empirical CA3 manufacturer formulas for the attenuation behavior are given based on the numerical results. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3633266]“
“The dielectric relaxation characteristics of conductive carbon black (CCB) reinforced ethylene acrylic elastomer (AEM) vulcanizates have been studied as a function of frequency (10(1)-10(6) Hz) at different filler loading over a wide range of temperatures (30-120 degrees C). The effect of filler loadings on the dielectric permittivity (epsilon’), loss tangent (tan delta), complex impedance (Z*), and electrical conductivity (sigma(ac)) were studied. The variation of epsilon’ with filler loading has been explained based on the interfacial polarization of the fillers within a heterogeneous system. The effect of filler loading on the imaginary AZD7762 (Z ”) and real (Z’) part of Z* were distinctly visible, which may be due to the relaxation dynamics of polymer chains at the polymerfiller interface. The frequency dependency of sigma(ac) has been investigated using percolation theory. The phenomenon of percolation in the composites has been discussed in terms of sigma(ac). The percolation threshold (phi(crit)) occurred in the range of 20-30 phr (parts per hundred) of filler loading. The effect

of temperature on tan delta, epsilon’, sigma(ac), and Nyquist plots VX-809 cell line of CCB-based AEM vulcanizates has been investigated. The CCB was uniformly dispersed within the AEM matrix as studied from the transmission electron microscope (TEM) photomicrographs. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“When a gash or gouge is made in a confluent layer of epithelial cells, the cells move to fill in the “”wound.” In some cases, such as in wounded embryonic chick wing buds, the movement of the cells is driven by cortical actin contraction (i.e., a purse string mechanism). In adult tissue, though, cells apparently crawl to close wounds. At the single cell level, this crawling is driven by the dynamics

of the cell’s actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by a complex biochemical network, and cell signaling has been proposed to play a significant role in directing cells to move into the denuded area. However, wounds made in monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells still close even when a row of cells is deactivated at the periphery of the wound, and recent experiments show complex, highly-correlated cellular motions that extend tens of cell lengths away from the boundary. These experiments suggest a dominant role for mechanics in wound healing. Here we present a biophysical description of the collective migration of epithelial cells during wound healing based on the basic motility of single cells and cell-cell interactions.

Therefore, EPC alterations might have a pathogenic role in diabet

Therefore, EPC alterations might have a pathogenic role in diabetic complications, thus becoming

a potential therapeutic target. In this review, EPC alterations will be examined in the context of macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, highlighting their roles and functions in the progression of the disease. (c) 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.”
“Objective: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) affects the cardiovascular selleck compound system, and epicardial fat tissue (EFT) thickness is closely associated with cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Despite this, the association between EFT thickness and pHPT has not been studied in a clinical setting. This study aimed to assess EFT thickness in patients with pHPT.

Methods: The study included 38 patients with pHPT and 40 healthy controls. EFT thickness, carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT), serum levels of parathormone (PTH) and calcium, and blood chemistry profiles were determined in all subjects. Correlation and regression analyses were performed with EFT thickness selleckchem and CIMT as dependent variables and age; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; body mass index

(BMI); presence of diabetes mellitus; and free plasma glucose (FPG), PTH, and serum calcium (Ca) levels as independent variables.

Results: Both the mean EFT thickness and the mean CIMT were significantly greater in the pHPT group than the control group (P<.001 for both). Correlation analysis showed that EFT thickness was significantly correlated with CIMT, age, systolic blood pressure, and PTH and serum Ca levels. Furthermore, the regression analysis revealed that EFT thickness retained its independent and positive association with FPG and serum Ca levels.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that EFT thickness may be a useful marker of early atherosclerosis in patients with pHPT. Furthermore, the increase in EFT thickness appears to be due to hypercalcemia.”
“Sovomercuration adducts of 2-nitrobenzyl-, 2-nitro-4,5-(ethylenedioxy)benzyl-,

and 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzylcyclopropanes were synthesized. The adducts reacted with sulfuric, fluorosulfonic, or chlorosulfonic acid to give 3-(2-chloromercurio)ethyl-1-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2,1-benzoxazinium ions whose stability depended on the nature of substituents in the aromatic ring. Unstable metalated 1-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2,1-benzoxazinium ions underwent fast protodemercuration to form metal-free 3-ethyl-1-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-2,1-benzoxazinium ions. Stable analogs in the above acids did not change to an appreciable extent over a period of 48-72 h. Hydrolysis of stable metalated 1-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxazolium ions afforded only 4-chloromercurio-1-(2-nitroaryl)butan-2-ol.”
“Nutritional status influences feeding behaviors, food preferences, and taste sensations.

Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human

Unlike the conventional, more common small molecular weight human medicines and chemical generics, protein-based medicines exhibit higher molecular weight, complexity in structure and function that can be affected by changes in the manufacturing process. Therefore, biosimilars represent a relatively heterogeneous class of medicinal products that make their regulation quite challenging. According

to the current understanding in the EU, a biosimilar is a copy version of an already authorized this website biopharmaceutical (or reference product) with similar biologic activity, physicochemical characteristics, efficacy, and safety, based on a full comparability exercise at quality, preclinical and Fer-1 in vitro clinical level to ensure similar efficacy and safety. Guidance has been provided through several Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) guidelines as well as individual scientific advice requested from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) by various companies for the development and regulation of biosimilars. This review is

mainly focused on the current status of regulation of biosimilars in the EU as well as on future challenges lying ahead for the improvement of the requirements needed for the marketing authorization of biosimilars. Emphasis is given on the quality requirements concerning these medicinal products (biologics).”
“Ultrafine Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphors were prepared by a modified solution combustion method. The as-prepared samples with sizes of 17.6-80 nm (nanophosphors) and 300 nm (submicron phosphors) were characterized by x-ray diffraction, learn more transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The emission spectra of the samples are unchanged in comparison with that of standard material. The excitation spectra show a redshift in the charge-transfer-state band

and a blueshift in the host gap band. In relation to commercial sample, the relative luminescence intensities of nano- and submicron phosphors are increased sufficiently to 64.4% and 93.6%, respectively. Higher quenching concentration of the activator Eu3+ ion was observed in the nanophosphor than that in the phosphor synthesized by solid state reaction.”
“Histopathological examination was carried out on post mortem samples of liver from 12 donkeys (Equus asinus), aged 21-57 years (4 females, 1 stallion, 7 geldings). Variable amounts of haemosiderin were present in Kupffer cells, portal macrophages and hepatocytes in all cases. In all cases there was infiltration of connective tissue around portal tracts by variable numbers of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages) but obvious portal fibrosis was present in only four animals.