Study limitations A weakness in our study is that therapy compliance was assessed without regularly monitoring
25OHD serum levels. Although patients stated their supplementation usage in a questionnaire, which was only seen by the researcher and not by their own gastroenterologist, it is likely that compliance is lower than declared. Therapy compliance of vitamin D supplementation is more or less comparable with #click here randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# bisphosphonate therapy because patients do not directly notice the benefits of therapy. Poor therapy compliance of bisphosphonate is recently described in a meta-analysis by Imaz et al. showing that only 66% of the osteoporosis patients possessed their prescribed medication after 1 year of follow-up . Whether low vitamin D levels despite supplementation are caused by ineffective vitamin D dosages, therapy compliance or other risk factors, the present study shows that vitamin D supplementation is suboptimal in IBD patients. Furthermore,
it is plausible that the correlation between disease activity and the assessed inactive vitamin D metabolites (25OHD) could be distorted by inflammatory reactions influencing the 25OHD level without affecting the function of the active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolite. It is known that the circulation of 25OHD in serum depends on proteins, such as the carrier vitamin binding protein (DBP), of which concentrations may alter caused by pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions. Nevertheless, NVP-BSK805 purchase in our view, it is rather unlikely that DBP concentrations will drop beneath the minimal concentration needed for 25OHD binding, due to the fact that 25OHD uses only a small amount of the binding sites of DBP available in the human body . In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is a common problem as shown in this large sample of adults suffering from IBD. Nevertheless, prevalence rates of vitamin D deficiency in IBD patients might be comparable to the prevalence Acyl CoA dehydrogenase in the general population. The importance of exposure to ultraviolet light for an adequate vitamin D
status is subscribed by the observed seasonal variation of serum 25OHD levels between summer and winter. At the end of winter, the number of patients with vitamin D deficiency is increased by 50%. Preferred sun exposure, sun holidays and solarium visits during summer and winter were strongly associated with high vitamin D levels. Factors associated with low vitamin D levels are high disease activity of IBD, high body mass index and increased haematological markers (ESR and RDW), indicating that the increased risk of osteoporosis in IBD is more related to the inflammatory process than to vitamin D deficiency. The effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25OHD are poor. Therefore, optimal vitamin D supplementation dosages in IBD patients should be re-evaluated in future studies. Conflicts of interest None.