The second part of the study was designed as a case-control study

The second part of the study was designed as a case-control study (approximately two controls per one case). The criteria for selecting patients were based on a clinical proforma, covering medical, pathological and histopathological records. A total of 129 prostate cancer patients (median age of 70, IQR 63–74 years) who were histologically verified Selleck MK5108 as

having prostate cancer were invited to participate in the project. Patients who had a first-degree relative (brother or father) with a confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer were excluded in order to avoid familial prostate cancer cases. The samples were used for estimating GST gene frequencies. Both patients and controls were interviewed regarding age, smoking habits, possible chemical exposure, previous and/or current prostate diseases, and incidence of cancer and chronic diseases. The individuals were grouped in never-smokers and ever-smokers. The studied population is described in Table 1. Table 1 General characteristic of the control and prostate

Smad inhibitor cancer patient groups   Control group Number (%) of subjects Prostate cancer patients Number (%) of subjects No. 228 129 Smoking status     Smokers 51 (22%) 35 (27%) Non-smokers 177 (78%) 94 (73%) PSA (ng/ml, means ± SD) 2,73 ± 6,78 30,46 ± 77,89*** *** p < 0.001 Chemicals Proteinase K was obtained from AppliChem (DE). All the primers, chemicals used for PCR and restriction enzyme, were purchased from Eppendorf (USA). All other chemicals used for DNA isolation were purchased from Sigma Co. (USA). Genotyping Peripheral venous blood was collected in 10 ml heparinized tubes and the specimens were immediately stored at -20°C for genotyping. From both, cases and (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate controls, genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral leukocytes by proteinase K digestion, phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation, dissolved in TE buffer (pH

7.5) and stored at -20°C until genotype R428 purchase analysis. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used to detect either the presence or absence of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in the genomic DNA samples simultaneously in the same tube; β-globin gene was co-amplified and used as an internal control [14]. This technique does not distinguish between heterozygote and homozygote GSTM1 – and GSTT1 -positive genotypes, but it does conclusively identify the null genotype [15]. Genomic DNA (100 ng) was amplified in a total volume of 25 μl reaction mixture containing 25 pmol of each GST primers (GSTM1: forward 5′-GAA CTC CCT GAA AAG CTA AAG C-3′ and reverse 5′-GTT GGG CTC AAA TAT ACG GTG G-3′, GenBank accession no. NM_146421; GSTT1: forward 5′-TTC CTT ACT GGT CCT CAC ATC TC-3′ and reverse 5′-TCA CCG GAT CAT GGC CAG CA-3′, GenBank accession no.

Assuming the same attractive force to accumulate In adatoms for h

Assuming the same attractive force to accumulate In adatoms for holes of all size, the larger ones will contain more InAs and therefore allow more QDs to CH5183284 form. Due to the dense pattern together with the given amount of deposited InAs, it is expected that the holes are not maximally filled with QDs so that the difference in occupation is only related to the accumulated amount of material and not limited by diffusion [23].

A higher standard deviation of the average QD occupation is found for smaller holes. This is possibly related to the fact that the absolute accuracy with which holes are defined in the resist during EBL yields a larger relative size fluctuation for smaller holes. Since the etching rate for a nanohole depends on its opening, i.e., its lateral size, see Figure 3, small size fluctuations in the resist get amplified during dry etching. Measurement errors by the program ImageJ that has to distinguish between the plane surface and the hole surface gain importance for smaller holes. selleck chemical Since the size of the holes

is relatively large, this contribution should not be very high though. Figure 3 Etching rate dependence on the surface area of the holes. The etching rate is dependent on the surface area of the holes and it is increasing strongly for small structures. For very large structures, the etching rate converges to an independent value, which is eight times higher than for the smallest investigated structures. In addition, it can be seen that the occupation increases more strongly for the 15 s etched sample. While the average number of QDs per hole seems to be lower for the 15 s sample compared to the 10 s sample for small holes, for holes larger than 120 nm, the occupation seems to be equal or even higher for the longer-etched sample. The reason for such behavior must be related to the increased depth of the holes because the increase in lateral size

Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase due to chemical etching does not lead to an expected higher occupation. Therefore, besides the lateral size, the shape of the hole influences the number of nucleating QDs. The shape of the Belnacasan written structure in the resist is preserved during dry etching and hence can be investigated. The overgrowth of holes depends on crystallographic direction so that elongated/elliptical shapes are obtained after overgrowing originally circular holes with a thin GaAs buffer layer. Different migration rates in the 〈0 1 1〉 and axes are responsible for this shape transformation, see Figure 4[35–38]. Since it is not possible to balance these different migration rates, a different approach was developed. In order to get a circular hole and thus an isotropic nucleation site, an elongated structure is written into the resist with the elongation being perpendicular to the one observed after buffer layer growth. The easiest way to create elongated structures is by exposing two single spots close to each other, see Figure 4a.

melitensis 16M that do not express mCherry After fixation, membr

melitensis 16M that do not express mCherry. After fixation, membrane permeabilisation with Triton X-100 (0.1% in dPBS) and AR-13324 chemical structure blocking of unspecific sites with bovine serum albumine (2% in dPBS), bacteria were detected with a monoclonal antibody raised against the lipopolysaccharides of Brucella (A76-12G12) [30] and a goat anti-mouse Texas Selleckchem GSK2118436 Red-conjugated secondary antibody. Fluorescence was observed using a Leica TCD confocal fluorescence

microscope. Western blotting MEFs were washed three times with PBS and then incubated for 10 min in cold lysis buffer (10 mM Tris–HCl pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 0.5% Triton X-100 and a protease-inhibitor cocktail (Roche)). After 10 min of rotation on a wheel, cell lysates were centrifuged for 15 min at 13,000 RPM at 4°C to sediment cell debris. Protein concentration of these clear lysates was determined using the BCA (Bicinchoninic acid) protein assay (Pierce). Fifteen micrograms

of proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE 12% and then, transferred onto polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Membranes were blocked for 1 h in PBS containing 0.1% Tween 20 and 2% of blocking agent (GE Healthcare), then incubated for 2 h with a primary monoclonal anti-LC3B antibody (NanoTools, Germany) and a secondary anti-mouse antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The activity of HRP was revealed by enhanced chemiluminescence BI-D1870 research buy (Perkin-Elmer). Statistical analysis Error bars indicate standard deviation (SD) or standard error of the mean (SEM) as indicated in the legend. Statistical significance was determined using SigmaPlot 11 software. Whenever possible, we have performed unpaired Student’s t-tests. When the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) or the equal variance test failed, we carried out a Mann–Whitney rank sum test. A two-way ANOVA followed by a pairwise multiple comparison procedure (Holm-Sidak method) was also carried out. Statistical significant differences were accepted for p < 0.05. Ethics statement No live animal was used in this work. Acknowledgments We acknowledge Dr. Noboru Mizushima (Tokyo Medical and Dental University) for providing WT and Atg5−/− MEFs. This work was supported by the Actions de Recherches Concertées-Communauté Française

de Belgique (Grant number Convention N°08/13-015) and the University of Paclitaxel datasheet Namur. We thank Thierry Arnould and Martine Raes (URBC, University of Namur) for fruitful discussions and access to the confocal microscopy. Additional file Additional file 1: GFP-LC3 labelling in WT MEFs infected or not with B. abortus or B. melitensis. WT MEFs stably expressing GFP-LC3 were maintained under normal conditions (left) or under starved conditions (right). NI, BA and BM correspond to non infected cells, cells infected with B. abortus and cells infected with B. melitensis, respectively. MEFs were fixed at 10 h p.i. Bacteria were detected with a monoclonal anti-LPS antibody and an anti-mouse IgG Texas Red-conjugated secondary antibody. Nuclei were stained with DAPI.

(A,C) 0 and (B,D) 0 03 mol/L The insets in A and D show the root

(A,C) 0 and (B,D) 0.03 mol/L. The insets in A and D show the roots images of SiNWs. The TEM characterizations were used to further study nanostructure and crystallinity of PSiNWs. The typical TEM images were shown in Figure 2. The SiNWs show solid roots and rough top, which is respectively shown in Figure 2A and in the inset. When the

etchant contains H2O2, the SiNWs surfaces are covered by numerous mesoporous structure with diameters of about 5 ~ 10 nm. The SAED pattern shows that the MPSiNWs still keep a single crystalline Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor structure. Figure 2 TEM images of SiNWs from moderately doped silicon wafer under various concentration of H 2 O 2 . (A) is the root of SiNWs prepared under etchant with 0 mol/L H2O2; the inset is the top of SiNWs. (B) is prepared under etchant with 0.03 mol/L H2O2; the inset shows the SAED pattern. The lightly doped wafer was also selected as the starting material besides medially doped silicon substrate. The H2O2 plays an important role in fabricating SiNWs through the 2-MACE process, which affects not only the etching rate, but also the morphology, nanostructure, and orientation of SiNWs [24, 25, 30, 31]. Thus, in the HF/AgNO3/H2O2 system, the effect of H2O2 concentration on the nanostructure of lightly doped SiNWs was carefully studied in this part. After the

etching, some silver dendrites formed and covered the wafer, and their sizes were decreased with the increasing H2O2 concentration. Meanwhile, the color of Ag dendrite changed regularly with the increase of H2O2. Without H2O2, the Ag dendrite showed a grey and black, which might be caused Fludarabine chemical structure by the formation of silver oxide. The

dendrite color became shinning silver-white with the increase of H2O2. The above results indicate that the Ag dendrite can be oxidized into Ag+ by H2O2 according to the following Liothyronine Sodium reaction: (1) It can be found that the SiNW structure and morphology are severely affected by the doping levels of wafers by comparing the experiment results in Figures 1 and 3. When the etchant solution has no H2O2, the resulting lightly doped SiNW arrays show sharp top and smooth surface; the length (about 4 μm) is shorter and denser than that of the medially doped one, which indicates that the higher doping level is beneficial for SiNW growth and porosity formation, and also for SiNWs from the HF/H2O2/AgNO3 Adriamycin manufacturer system (by comparing with Figures 1B and 3B). As we know, both Ag+/Ag or H2O2/H2O couples have higher positive equilibrium potentials than silicon EVB. Thus, the holes will be injected into the valence band of silicon with the Ag deposition or reduction of H2O2, which induces silicon substrate oxidization and dissolution, leading to SiNW growth and porosity formation. Figure 3 SEM images of etched lightly doped silicon wafer under various concentration of H 2 O 2 . (A) 0, (B) 0.03, (C,D) 0.1, (E,F) 0.4, and (G) 0.8 mol/L.

R Blinks,” which included substantive contributions


R. Blinks,” which included substantive contributions

(in alphabetical order) by John Blinks, Jack Dainty, Mary Jo Ryan Duncan, Richard Eppley, Francis Haxo, Nancy Nicholson, Barbara Pope, Cecilia Smith with Isabella Abbott, Anitra Thorhaug, and William Vidaver. This symposium was organized by one of us (A.T.) and M.J. Ryan Duncan. Included herein are also the opinions of authoritative reviews of photosynthesis research on Blinks by others (with Z-VAD-FMK ic50 their permission) who did not attend the celebration in California. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and the researchers quoted herein. Although several photosynthesis publications of Lawrence R. Blinks are most frequently cited in photosynthesis reviews, his other investigations have also been continually cited and were of critical importance to early plant membrane transport physiology, marine phycology, and marine ecophysiology. Many investigators have felt that his major contributions to photosynthesis were those concerning accessory pigments, chromatic transients, and oxygen evolution during photosynthesis in marine algae. He published in photosynthesis mainly from 1946 to 1964, although he published articles on ion transport throughout his long professional life from 1926 into the 1980s. He also made important but less heralded contributions to the administration of the Hopkins Marine Station and to curricula

MCC950 nmr in Phycology and Plant Physiology at Stanford University and the University of California at Santa Cruz. As mentioned in the Introduction, he provided general service to plant science during VAV2 his vice presidency of the National Science Foundation, active membership in the US National Academy

of Sciences and his editorial work for the Journal of General Physiology, the Annual Review of Plant Physiology, and several other journals as well as being KPT-8602 order President of the Society for General Physiology and Vice President for the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Early life and early investigations at Harvard University and Rockefeller Institute with Winthrop Osterhout and Jacques Loeb Lawrence Blinks was born in Michigan City, Indiana on April 22, 1900 to Walter Moulton Blinks and Ella Little Rogers Blinks. Shortly thereafter, his family moved to southern Michigan, where he attended public school and did well in science. After a year at Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Michigan, he and his family moved to northern California. There, Blinks and his brother enrolled at Stanford for 2 years. His family then moved back to Michigan 2 years later, but Lawrence decided to enter Harvard University. (A relative of his mother’s, John Rogers, had been president of Harvard (1682–1684) and many other family members were Harvard alumni.) After Blinks finished his B.S. (1923), M.S. (1925), and Ph.D. (1926) with Prof.

Meanwhile, it had

Meanwhile, it had become clear that the test for neural tube defects could also be used to assess the risk for Down syndrome, namely by detecting low levels of alpha fetoprotein. A new round of governmental enquiry and requests for research began. see more In 1992, the Ethical Committee of the Department of Health advising on research applications (KEMO) was asked to consult on a project of the obstetricians in the northern and central regions of the Netherlands to offer screening for neural

tube defects and Down syndrome and study the ethical and psychological aspects of such screening. KEMO had no ethical objections to this type of research. However, it mentioned that this might actually not be seen as population screening in the sense of an offer without a prior medical condition. Since the women were pregnant they were already receiving

medical care. Furthermore, it was suggested that women might be informed about the test so they could make their own decision about it; thus reducing pressure to take the test (KEMO 1992). The same point of view was voiced by the parents’ organisation BOSK (BOSK 1992). The organisation wanted women of all ages to be informed about the test so they could decide for themselves. However, BOSK was concerned informed consent would not be guaranteed in case screening would be offered as part of a population screening programme; the free choice not to opt for abortion might be constrained through societal pressure.

As we will discuss below, this distinction between offering and informing would become important in the next decade. The Minister, however, decided not to implement serum screening for Down syndrome in the early 1990s. Testing for reproductive issues versus population screening The discussion on serum screening should be seen in the light of previous developments during the 1980s. As became clear in the Ureohydrolase discussions about the departmental report on the prevention of hereditary and congenital anomalies (Parliamentary documentation 1987–1988a), there was a strong consensus for government to keep its distance from prenatal genetic testing. In clinical genetic practice in the Netherlands, parental autonomy had been firmly established. It appeared that by then a ‘field of argumentation’ had developed regarding genetic testing for AR-13324 sensitive reproductive options. On the other hand, quite another field of argumentation had formed concerning population screening. There was consensus at the time that the instrument of population screening should be solely offered to improve public health if used for treatable disorders with an available early intervention. In short: no treatment, no screening. In this field of argumentation, the government should play an active role.

However ALM had lower VO2 and higher CHO oxidation and lower fat

However ALM had lower VO2 and FDA approval PARP inhibitor higher CHO oxidation and lower fat oxidation than BL while ALM did not change HR and EE as compared to BL (Figure 3).

It should be noted that ALM (not COK) had lower oxygen consumption during TT (Figure 3), lower blood FFA and higher blood glucose at the end of exercise than BL (Figure 5, Table 2), suggesting almonds might help athletes to mobilize more previously reserved CHO, instead of breaking down fat as an energy source during training and the intense exercise [41]. A higher Hb level in ALM might also help athletes transport more oxygen to skeletal muscles during exercise. L-arginine, the natural precursor of NO, may stimulate insulin secretion [42], decrease oxygen consumption [23, 25] and ammonia liberation [27] during exercise and regulate vascular dilation [43, 44]. A clinical trial showed that a combined Q-VD-Oph cell line arginine and antioxidant supplement improved exercise performance in the elderly [26]. Insulin facilitates glucose transfer to skeletal muscle tissues and subsequent glycogen synthesis [42, 45, 46]. Our results suggest that almond

consumption may contribute to an improvement in cycling selleck chemicals llc performance- related elements via the effect of arginine on insulin secretion and muscle glycogen synthesis without enhancing insulin sensitivity via down-regulated insulin levels noted in patients with diabetes [14, 47, 48]. Unsatisfactorily, we did not observe a statistical difference in blood arginine and NO (Table 2) because daily arginine intake from almonds (about 2 g excluding that from the diet) provided ~100 mg/kg BM which was less than that administered in other’s studies [25, 27]; athletes had a larger need and utilization (metabolism) of arginine due to intensive exercise; there was a large inter-individual variation; arginine may work with other almond nutrients in a synergistic or additive why manner. Several studies had shown that quercetin alone or plus antioxidants improved mitochondrial biogenesis, VO2max, and exercise capacity [19–22]. Therefore, the effect of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen

consumption might also be linked to almond consumption in this study. Human studies demonstrated that almond consumption increases circulating α-tocopherol concentration in a dose-dependent manner [4, 12], decreases biomarkers of oxidative stress in smokers and hypercholesterlemic patients [1, 49]. Phenolics in almonds have shown to exert antioxidant action against reactive radicals in humans [6, 7]. Thus, a diverse array of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds in almonds might contribute to improving antioxidant capacity in the athletes. Even though ALM (not COK) had a higher blood VE than BL and higher TAOC than COK, we did not find other significant changes related to the antioxidant effects of almond consumption in trained athletes.

This has been demonstrated

This has been demonstrated see more in some tumors, particularly in bladder carcinoma, which is promoted by chronic inflammation and is uniquely sensitive to acute inflammation [2, 3].

In addition, the surgical stress associated with general anesthesia causes immune suppression that accelerates the growth of neoplastic cells and premature enhanced metastasis [4–6]. Tumor-associated macrophages and T cells modify the microenvironment and are relevant to cancer progression. Tumor cell proliferation and invasion are also correlated with the release of specific cytokines [1, 7]. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin -1beta (IL-1β), which are released from tumor-infiltrating leukocytes, can activate signal transducers and activators of transcription protein 3 (STAT3), which induces

immunosuppression that favors tumor cell proliferation [8, 9]. T cells can exert both tumor suppression and cancer-promoting effects. Two subpopulations of lymphocytes have been described: LGK 974 those with Th1 or Th2 activity [10]. Th1 cells secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and favor activation of macrophages and the inflammatory response. Th2 cells, with their pattern of cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), mediate the production of antibodies and have anti-inflammatory effects. In many tumors, such as colorectal cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer, the Th1 response

correlates with better prognosis [1, 11, 12]. Th1 cells probably exert a tumor suppressive effect also in bladder cancer [13]. Furthermore, induction of the T-helper type 1 immune response is Adenosine required for effective bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy for bladder cancer [14]. Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs), a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells, play a fundamental role in maintaining immune tolerance [15–17]. Increasing evidence suggests that infiltrating and circulating Tregs inhibit antitumor immunity and promote tumor growth and disease progression, as observed in some clinical studies [18, 19]. Nevertheless, only a few studies have evaluated the immunosuppressive effect of different anesthetic techniques in cancer patients undergoing major surgery. No guidelines for anesthesia procedures for cancer patients are available even though guidelines for operative procedures have been formulated for different types of cancer [20]. Previous studies on the role of inhaled and intravenous anesthetics in immune suppression showed contradictory results and appeared to be correlated with the type of cancer and surgery [20–23]. To our ATM inhibitor knowledge, no study has evaluated the effect of different anesthetic techniques in patients undergoing surgery for bladder cancer. Only Wang et al.

Results and discussion Influence of a single mismatch in the last

Results and discussion Influence of a Adriamycin single mismatch in the last 4 nucleotides Since the beginning of the 1990s, it has been widely acknowledged that PCR Epigenetics inhibitor amplification is significantly inhibited by a single mismatch occurring at the 3′ end of the primer [25–27]. Even when the last nucleotide was substituted with inosine, which is capable of binding to all four nucleotides, primers still failed to amplify all of the expected sequences in the microbial community [28]. Recently, Bru et al. [16] and Wu et al. [17] demonstrated that the efficiency of PCR amplification

was also inhibited if a single mismatch occurred within the last 3–4 nucleotides of the 3′ end of primer, even when the annealing temperature was decreased for optimal efficiency. These single mismatches have not been considered in previous primer coverage studies [12, 18, 29].

We studied the influence of a single primer mismatch occurring within the last 4 nucleotides using the RDP dataset. At the domain level, a relatively weak influence was found when non-coverage rates that allowed a single mismatch in the last 4 nucleotides were compared to rates that did not allow such a mismatch. The absolute differences were ≪5% for all of the primers except 519F (Figure 1A). In contrast, significant differences were observed for some of the primers at the phylum level. Rate differences ≫20% under two criteria are listed in Table 1. The most noticeable non-coverage rate was observed for 338F in the phylum Lentisphaerae. If a single mismatch was allowed within the last 4 nucleotides, its non-coverage rate Ku 0059436 was only 3%; otherwise, it was as high as 100%. Similar results were observed for 338F in the phylum OP3, but with a smaller number of sequences. These Phospholipase D1 results indicate that 338F is not appropriate for either phylum (Lentisphaerae or OP3). Overall, the most seriously affected primer was 519F. In this case, 10 phyla showed rate differences ≫20% under two criteria, and 6 phyla showed differences ≫40%. The significant differences observed at the phylum level imply that a single

mismatch in the last 4 nucleotides may be fatal under specific circumstances, and this possibility should be considered when choosing and designing primers. Figure 1 Influence of a single mismatch occurring in the last 4 nucleotides. The black column denotes the non-coverage rate when no mismatches were allowed in the last 4 nucleotides, while the white column denotes the rate when a single mismatch was allowed. A Domain non-coverage rates for 8 primers in the RDP dataset; B Phylum non-coverage rates for primer 338 F in the RDP dataset; C Phylum non-coverage rates for primer 519 F in the RDP dataset. Refer to Additional file 1: Figure S1A for the normalized results of Figure 1A. Table 1 Influence of a single mismatch near the 3′ end in the RDP dataset Primer Phylum Non-coverage rate 4+ (%) Non-coverage rate 4- (%) 338 F Lentisphaerae 3.0 100.0   OP3 5.9 100.

This can arise because of different ionization states of protein

This can arise because of different ionization states of protein side chains close to their pKa, different orientations of side chains, slight distortions of the overall protein structure, and a host of similar small influences. The overall effect is to smear out the transition to produce inhomogeneous broadening. (3) Chlorophylls and other pigments are generally bound in a variety of non-equivalent sites in an individual protein complex. For example, the Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) complex of green sulfur bacteria binds seven bacteriochlorophyll molecules each in a unique site. This type of inhomogeneous broadening may produce a set of more discrete Selleck Belnacasan transition energies than the

broadening arising by mechanism (2). Both (2) and (3) give transition energies that vary slowly or not at all on the time scale of the optical functions of photosynthetic complexes. (4) In many photosynthetic AZD6738 supplier complexes, the chromophores are held very close to one or more neighbors leading to electronic mixing and associated spectral shifts from the individual molecule’s unperturbed transition. This can lead to a set of chemically identical chromophores having a significantly broader spectrum than a similar,

but non-interacting, set of molecules. (5) Finally, several processes can, and often do, happen very fast in photosynthetic complexes, leading to lifetime broadening. An excellent summary of the spectroscopy of photosynthetic complexes can be found in Van Amerongen et al. (2000). Photon echo spectroscopy (Mukamel 1995; Parson 2007) can often see more remove or greatly diminish the type of broadening described in (2). Indeed, the inhomogeneous broadening can be used to observe the energy flow both within and between photosynthetic complexes. A newly developed form

of photon echo spectroscopy, two-dimensional Fourier transform photon echo spectroscopy, can be used to unravel the interactions described in (4) as well as remove type (2) broadening, and reveal, on their characteristic timescale, the relaxation pathways within individual complexes and reveal striking details about their design and the origins of their great efficiency. Below, we outline the origins of photon echo (and related) signals and describe a number of photon echo-based experimental techniques applied to problems in photosynthesis. The basis of photon Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK echo spectroscopy, as with other “ultrafast” techniques, is the interrogation of a system with laser pulses short enough to track dynamical processes of interest. In this work, ultrafast means tens of femtoseconds (where a femtosecond is 10−15 s), a timescale on which the fastest energy transfer processes occur between neighboring pigments in light-harvesting complexes. The method requires a sequence of laser pulses to interrogate the sample and, as with pump-probe and related experiments, allows observation of excited state dynamics.