Acknowledgements None declared References 1 Ilhan G, Karakus S,

Acknowledgements None declared. References 1. Ilhan G, Karakus S, Andic N: Risk factors and primary prevention of acute leukemia. Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP 2006, 7:515–517.PubMed 2. Yan J, Yin M, Dreyer ZE, Scheurer ME, Kamdar K, Wei Q, Okcu MF: A meta-analysis of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Pediatric blood & cancer 2012, 58:513–518.CrossRef 3. Ye Z, Song H: Glutathione s-transferase polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1) and the risk of acute leukaemia: a systematic

review and meta-analysis. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 2005, 41:980–989.CrossRef 4. Wang L, Yin F, Xu X, Hu X, Zhao D: X-Ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 (XRCC1) Genetic Polymorphisms and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Meta-Analysis. PloS one 2012, 7:e34897.PubMedCrossRef 5. Yu K, Zhang J, Dou C, Gu S, Xie Y, Mao Y, Ji C: Methionine LCL161 in vivo synthase A2756G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis. European journal of human genetics : EJHG

2010, 18:370–378.PubMedCrossRef 6. Boffetta P: Biomarkers in cancer epidemiology: an integrative approach. Carcinogenesis 2010, 31:121–126.PubMedCrossRef 7. Guengerich FP, Shimada T: Activation of selleck screening library procarcinogens by human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Mutation research 1998, 400:201–213.PubMedCrossRef 8. Zhou SF, Liu JP, JQEZ5 Chowbay B: Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 enzymes and its clinical impact. Drug metabolism reviews 2009, 41:89–295.PubMedCrossRef Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease 9. Munafo MR, Clark TG, Flint J: Assessing publication bias in genetic association studies: evidence from a recent meta-analysis. Psychiatry research 2004, 129:39–44.PubMedCrossRef 10. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997, 315:629–634.PubMedCrossRef 11. Yang Y, Tian Y, Jin X, Yan C, Jiang F, Zhang Y, Tang J, Shen X: A case-only study of interactions between metabolic enzyme polymorphisms and industrial pollution in childhood acute leukemia. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 2009, 28:161–166.PubMedCrossRef 12. Pelloso LA,

Da Silva ID, De Souza NC, Yamamoto M, Botelho CA, Chauffaille Mde L: CYP1A1 polymorphisms modify overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Leukemia & lymphoma 2007, 48:1211–1215.CrossRef 13. Barragan E, Collado M, Cervera J, Martin G, Bolufer P, Roman J, Sanz MA: The GST deletions and NQO1*2 polymorphism confers interindividual variability of response to treatment in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia research 2007, 31:947–953.PubMedCrossRef 14. Voso MT, D’Alo F, Gumiero D, Guidi F, Hohaus S, Leone G: The CYP1A1*2a allele is an independent prognostic factor for acute myeloid leukemia. Haematologica 2005, 90:982–984.PubMed 15. Infante-Rivard C, Krajinovic M, Labuda D, Sinnett D: Parental smoking, CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms and childhood leukemia (Quebec, Canada).

To evaluate the precision of the absolute flatness measurements,

To evaluate the precision of the absolute flatness measurements, the authors examine the height

differences in the IWR1 absolute shapes. Methods Figure 1 shows a schematic diagram of the near-infrared interferometer. The near-infrared interferometer was built based on the Fizeau interferometer. Figure 2 shows a photograph of the near-infrared interferometer. The near-infrared laser diode (FOL13DDRC-A31, Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan) with a 1,310-nm peak wavelength light where the silicon plane mirror is transparent, was used as a light source. The typical peak wavelength of the laser light was 1,310 nm. The temperature dependence of the peak emission wavelength was 0.09 nm/°C. The ambient temperature

fluctuation during the measurements by the three-flat method was within 0.1°C. The temperature of the laser diode was within 0.1°C. The wavelength fluctuation was estimated to be 0.009 nm from the temperature dependence and fluctuation. The output light from the near-infrared light source was expanded to the necessary size. A parallel light was provided using the collimator and perpendicularly incident on the reference and detected surfaces. The reference and detected surfaces were placed almost parallel, and the distance between them was approximately 24 mm. The light was divided into two waves on the reference surface. One of the waves was reflected on the surface TPCA-1 supplier and the other passed through it. The wave passing through the reference surface was reflected on the detected surface. The two reflected waves passing through the

imaging lens interfered and formed interferograms. The image of the interferogram was put into a personal computer with a near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera (C5840, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan). The CCD camera had a high sensitivity to wavelengths from 400 to 1,650 nm. The signal of the CCD camera output was converted to a 10-bit digital signal using a video analog-to-digital converter. The 32 digital signals were accumulated on a computer with a software (LabVIEW, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX, USA) designed to obtain the average. The first 10 digits of the average signal were chosen PRKACG as the measured value of the interferogram intensity. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the near-infrared interferometer. Figure 2 Photograph of the near-infrared interferometer. Figure 3 shows a typical intensity map of an interferogram. The distance between the reference and detected surfaces varied by an interval of λ/12 to λ/2 with a phase shift stage, and interferograms were recorded at equal intervals of the shifted distance using the CCD camera. The phase shift stage which was composed of elastic hinges and a piezoelectric actuator traveled in a straight line.

1 +/−0 1% of cell lysis after 24 h of infection P mosselii MFY1

1 +/−0.1% of cell lysis after 24 h of infection. P. BKM120 mw mosselii MFY161 exhibited a cytotoxic activity reaching 64.5 +/−0.1% of lysis and the cytotoxic activity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was higher with 85.6 +/−0.2% of lysis. Enumeration of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 (5 × 108 CFU.mL-1), P. mosselii MFY161 (4.8 × 108 CFU.mL-1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (4.9 × 108 CFU.mL-1), at the end of the infection period showed that higher cytotoxicity was not due to bacterial overgrowth. Figure 1 Cytotoxic effects of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii

MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 on Caco-2/TC7 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by LDH release assay after 24 h of infection. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. *** P < 0.001 versus uninfected Caco-2/TC7 cells, LEE011 supplier ∆∆∆ P < 0.001 versus P. aeruginosa PAO1, ∆∆ P < 0.01 versus P. aeruginosa PAO1, •• P < 0.01 versus P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99. Bacterial invasion assay The capacity of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and

MFY161 to enter Caco-2/TC7 cells has been investigated using the gentamicin exclusion test check details (Figure 2). The results show that the two P. mosselii strains studied can have an invasive behavior with 0.5 +/−0.2 × 105 and 0.2 +/−0.2 × 105 CFU.mL-1 detected intracellularly for P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and MFY161, respectively. The invasive capacity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was significantly higher with 1.4 +/−0.1 × 105 CFU.mL-1 that entered Caco-2/TC7 cells. Figure 2 Invasive Progesterone capacity of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1. 4 h after infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells with the bacteria, extracellular germs were killed by gentamicin. Cells were lysed and the intracellular bacteria were enumerated by plating onto nutrient agar medium. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. * P < 0.05 versus

P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and P. mosselii MFY161, NS not significant between P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99 and P. mosselii MFY161. Quantification of IL-6, IL-8 and HBD-2 secretion The bacterial proinflammatory effect of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 was assessed by measuring IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in Caco-2/TC7 after 24 h of infection. The results show that the two strains of P. mosselii studied did not induce significant stimulation of IL-6 (Figure 3A) and IL-8 (Figure 3B) secretion in Caco-2/TC7 compared to uninfected cells. On the contrary, the infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells with P. aeruginosa PAO1 led to a major secretion of IL-8 with 92 +/−13 pg.mL-1 (Figure 3B). Figure 3 Proinflammatory effects of P. mosselii ATCC BAA-99, P. mosselii MFY161 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 on Caco-2/TC7 cells. IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines, and HBD-2 were measured in Caco-2/TC7 cells supernatant after 24 h of infection. Results were calculated as the mean values (+/−SEM) of three independent experiments. *** P < 0.001 versus uninfected Caco-2/TC7 cells, ** P < 0.

Perceived impacts on livelihoods and range of responses both shor

Perceived impacts on livelihoods and range of responses both short and long term 2008, 2009 Precipitation data Where local data was available Kisumu Airport, Ahero, Kibos and Awasi stations Musoma Airport and Tarime station Monthly and daily rainfall data between

1951 and 2008 September 2009 Mapping of seasonal calendars Four local groups, two with women only (n = 10–30/group) Thurdibuoro and selleck chemicals llc Onjiko Kisumwa and Kunsugu Mapping of climate, health, income, expenditure, food production and consumption/year January 2010 Multi-stakeholder workshop (2 days) LVB stakeholders: KARI, KEFRI, LVDC KEMRI,U of Nairobi, Kenya Seed, Vi-AFP, Red Cross, Equity Bank, LVEMP, Maseno CH5424802 chemical structure Uni, ILRI, KMFRI, SIDA, Local farmers from both Kenya and Tanzania Held in Kisumu, Kenya (n = 65)   Identifying impacts of climate variability and change on local communities. Identifying current coping and adaptation strategies, alternative future pathways, synergies and future needs for collaboration between existing actors January

2011 Focus group and individual interviews Widows, two groups (n = 7/grp) Onjiko   Challenges and opportunities of being a widow in a small holder context Selleckchem KU55933 HH Households, LVB Lake Victoria Basin Fig. 2 Map of Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) with marked study sites (source: International Lake Environment Committee 2005) Local stakeholders were involved in our research at several junctures to give us the opportunity to test, evaluate and verify initial empirical findings. This also enhanced the

iterative process by allowing 4��8C empirical data to be revised and revisited throughout the research process. Initially, this was done through interviews with stakeholders, specifically farmers themselves, but also other informants working locally such as health care practitioners, representatives from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and politicians, i.e., location chiefs or ward executive officers. Subsequently, through the organization and execution of a multi-stakeholder workshop, it served as a first step to raise awareness and open up a critical dialogue about climate adaptation. Importantly, it also served to increase collaboration between high-end stakeholders themselves as well as between them and local farmers. Contextualizing climate vulnerability in the LVB The most fundamental connection between natural systems and human well-being in the LVB appears to be smallholders’ heavy dependence on biophysical assets for their livelihoods. Barrett (2008) argues that when the key state variables of two systems are shared then strong interdependence follows automatically. Emerging questions relate to the nature of these interrelationships and the balancing or reinforcement of feedbacks within and between systems. In the communities we studied, people rely on rain-fed mixed agriculture based on labor-intensive small-scale farming and livestock rearing.

(C) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 in parotid

(C) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 in GSK126 price parotid saliva alone and after incubation with five different L. gasseri isolates and the L. gasseri type strain; (D) upper panel depicts detection of gp340 and lower panel detection of MUC7 in submandibular/sublingual saliva alone and after incubation with five different L. gasseri isolates and the type strain. Numbers below lanes in panels C and D refer to the following contents: (1) Saliva alone (+ve control), (2) Saliva after L. gasseri CCUG31451T incubation, (3) Saliva after L. gasseri isolate A241 incubation, (4) Saliva after L. gasseri

isolate A274 incubation, (5) Saliva after L. gasseri isolate B1 incubation, (6) Saliva after L. gasseri isolate Seliciclib concentration B16 incubation, (7) Saliva after L. gasseri isolate L10 incubation. MUC7 (mw ≈150 kDa) was detected using Western blot analysis with mAb LUM7-2 antibodies in submandibular saliva (Figure 4, lower panels A and B, lane 6, lower panel D lane 1) but not in parotid saliva (data not shown). MUC7 levels were reduced in submandibular saliva after incubation with L. gasseri (Figure 4, learn more lower

panel A, lane 7) and S. mutans (Figure 4, lower panels B, lane 7). MUC7 was detected bound to L. gasseri (Figure 4, lower panel A, lane 8) and S. mutans (Figure 4, lower panel B, lane 8) after incubation with submandibular saliva. SDS treatment

released the MUC7 bound to L. gasseri (Figure 4, lower panel A, lane 9) and to S. mutans (Figure 4, lower panels B, lane 9). Similar results were observed for MUC7 binding to six additional isolates of L. gasseri (Figure 4D, lower panel). L. gasseri binds to human epithelial cells Adherence of FITC-tagged L. gasseri strains was detected by fluorescence microscopy as illustrated for strain A274 (Figure 5). All L gasseri strains were observed only adjacent to epithelial cells. Figure 5 Adhesion Niclosamide of L. gasseri to human epithelial cells. Field of view containing differentiated human gingival epithelial cells (HGEP.05) and fluorescently stained L. gasseri A274 (in green). Bacteria were detected only in association with gingival epithelial cells. Images were captured using a Zeiss imager Z1 upright microscope. Bars in panels equal 20 μm. Discussion In this study lactobacilli were detected more frequently in breastfed than formula-fed 4 month-old infants in saliva and mucosal swab samples as we previously observed in a different population of infants [13]. L. gasseri was the dominant Lactobacillus species detected, which was identified from 16S RNA gene sequences of isolates. Probiotic potential of L. gasseri was found to include growth inhibition of F. nucleatum, A. naeslundii, A. oris, S. sobrinus and C.

suis using a highly virulent serotype 2 strain, strain 10 First

suis using a highly virulent serotype 2 strain, strain 10. First we determined the minimal inhibitory

concentration (MIC) of six antibiotics with different modes of action for exponential grown S. suis strain 10 by the standard microdilution assay (see Additional file 1: Table S1), because one main characteristic of persister cells is the ability to tolerate concentrations of different antimicrobial compounds above the MIC. Following, to test whether S. suis is capable of producing persister cells that tolerate antibiotic treatment, we performed antibiotic killing experiments with a 100-fold MIC of each antimicrobial compound. Antibiotic challenge was performed BTK inhibitor supplier with cultures grown either to exponential or stationary phase. Since a 100-fold MIC should inactivate antibiotic-sensitive normal growing bacteria, we assumed that this treatment would result in characteristic biphasic-killing characterized by an initial rapid killing of the bulk of the bacterial learn more population followed by a distinct plateau of surviving drug tolerant persister cells [6]. As depicted in Figure 1A, gentamicin treatment of exponential grown S. suis resulted in decrease of bacterial CFU by three orders of magnitude within the first hour and a subsequent plateau phase in the following hours. When we applied β-lactam antibiotics and ciprofloxacin the killing was not as pronounced as

observed for gentamicin, nevertheless a slow decrease of life counts was seen over time. Nearly no killing was observed after treatment with rifampicin. In contrast, daptomycin was able to completely kill the bacterial MRT67307 mw population without detectable survival of persister cells. These data indicate that within an exponential grown S. suis culture a subpopulation of antibiotic tolerant persister cells exists, which show different degrees of tolerance depending on the class of antibiotic. Figure 1 Killing kinetics of S. suis exposed to different antibiotics. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II Exponential (A) or stationary (B) grown S. suis strain 10 was treated with 100-fold MIC

of indicated antibiotics over time. The limit of detection was defined as 100 CFU/ml throughout all killing experiments. All lower bacterial numbers were considered as not detectable (n. d.). The values are means of two biological replicates and error bars indicate the standard deviation. An untreated culture without any antibiotic challenge (w/o antibiotic) served as a control. Next we studied the persister cell levels of stationary grown S. suis since for several other bacterial species a drastic increase in persister levels has been reported at the onset of stationary growth phase [4]. Antibiotic treatment of stationary cultures of S. suis with 100-fold MIC resulted in a substantial drug tolerance, i.e. a distinct biphasic killing pattern such as seen with exponential cultures was not observed (Figure 1A vs. B).

The relation between volume

The relation between volume fraction and mass fraction is as follows: (6) where ρ f and ρ np are solvent density and NP density, respectively. Using Equation 5, one can obtain the SHC of the nanofluid (c p,nf) at any mass fraction (α’) from the measured SHC of the nanofluid (c p,m) at a certain mass fraction (α) for a given NP size. The predictions MLN4924 supplier using Equation 5 for the SHCs of the nanofluids at

various concentrations having 13-nm alumina NPs (red solid line) and 90-nm alumina NPs (blue dash line) based on the measured SHCs at 4.6 vol.%, along with the experimental results, are also shown in Figure 5. As Figure 5 shows, the predictions from the proposed model agree well with the experimental results. The large difference between the predictions of Equations 5 and 1 is from the result of the nanolayer effect on the SHC. This could be better understood by looking at the third term in the numerator of Equation 4. Since the weight of nanolayers (W layer ’) increases as learn more particle concentration increases, it results in a further reduced SHC, provided that the nanolayer has a lower SHC than that of molten salt. Furthermore, the increase of SHC with increasing particle size is also

a result of the nanolayer effect. For a given NP concentration, the nanolayer effect increases as particle size reduces since the number of particle increases with reducing particle size. Thus, one observes GS-1101 datasheet a decreased SHC as particle size reduces, and Reverse transcriptase particle concentration increases because of the augmentation of the nanolayer effect.

Conclusions In conclusion, we have explored the SHC of the molten salt-based alumina nanofluid. The NP size-dependent SHC in the nanofluids had never been reported before and cannot be explained by the current existing model. We found that the reduction of the SHC of nanofluid when NP size reduces is due to the nanolayer effect, since the nanolayer contribution increases as particle size reduces for a given volume fraction. A theoretical model taking into account the nanolayer effect on the SHC of nanofluid was proposed. The model supports the experimental results in contrast to the existing model. The findings from this study are advantageous for the evaluation of the application of nanofluids in thermal storage for solar-thermal power plants. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Dr. C-W Tu and Dr. S-K Wu of the Industrial Technology Research Institute and Prof. Chuanhua Duan of Boston University for the helpful discussion about the heat capacity of the nanofluid. The authors would also like to acknowledge the Green Energy and Environmental Laboratory of the Industrial Technology Research Institute for the use of their equipment for the heat capacity measurement. The funding support for this study is from the National Science Council of Taiwan (Grant no. NSC 101-2623-E-009 -001-ET). References 1. Choi SUS: Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids with Nanoparticles.

The relationship between α-Klotho and FGF23 levels has previously

The relationship between α-Klotho and FGF23 levels has previously been examined in experimental animal studies [30]. In α-Klotho-deficient mice, FGF23 level was significantly elevated; further, infusion of FGF23 repressed the expression of α-Klotho in a mouse model [13]. However, no data have been reported on the relationship between soluble

α-Klotho and FGF23 concentration in humans. We have demonstrated clearly that soluble α-Klotho is negatively correlated with FGF23 level in CKD patients. We have also shown that soluble α-Klotho level is decreased in the second phase of CKD. Soluble α-Klotho in itself moderates urinary phosphate excretion by inhibiting renal NaPi-2a and NaPi-2c in renal proximal tubules [31]. A see more decrease in soluble α-Klotho level thus causes elevation of serum phosphate levels, which may stimulate the production of FGF23. Our clinical data are therefore in accordance with the learn more findings from previous animal studies. Our data indicate that α-Klotho and FGF23 may play a key role in the pathogenesis

of mineral and bone disorder in the relatively early phase of CKD. A limitation of our study is that we did not investigate α-Klotho levels in normal healthy volunteers for comparison. Yamazaki et al. [22] reported that secreted α-Klotho level was associated with age in the healthy population. Our data indicate that secreted soluble α-Klotho level also was influenced by age in a population of CKD patients. Therefore, we must consider age during the assessment of secreted soluble α-Klotho levels, if soluble α-Klotho is to be used as a biomarker for CKD. PI-1840 Stage 1 CKD patients were younger than those with stage 2 in LY3023414 in vitro our study. The reason for this discrepancy is simply the inclusion of a relatively small number

of elderly patients with proteinuria and an eGFR of >90 mL/min. We performed additional stepwise multiple regression analysis to examine whether age affects the level of soluble secreted α-Klotho in patients with CKD stage 1 or 2. As shown in Table 2, eGFR, but not age, was the most potent influencer of soluble secreted α-Klotho level. Further studies using both healthy volunteers and CKD patients are necessary to evaluate the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of serum secreted α-Klotho. In summary, our data indicate that soluble secreted α-Klotho may represent a new predictive marker for the progression of CKD, especially in the early stages of the disease. Further studies are necessary to gain a more precise understanding of the function of α-Klotho in CKD and its role in the pathogenesis of MBD. Acknowledgments This work was supported by Daiwa Memorial foundation, Japanese Kidney foundation, and a grant from the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports of Japan (to Y. S., K. I., K. O., S. F., and Y. T.) and a grant of Kochi Organization for Medical Reformation and Renewal to Y.T. We thank Ms. Reiko Matumoto, Ms. Sekie Saito for technical assistances. References 1.

Our samples possess a 25 at % erbium concentration, which is high

Our samples possess a 25 at.% erbium concentration, which is higher than the concentrations reported in previous studies [33]. This also agrees well with the results of Yang et al. [29], who observed the predominance of green emission and the absence of red emission in flower microcrystallites that had been low doped with 1 at.% Er:Lu2O3. Furthermore, as it can be observed in Figure 8, there is a change on the blue/green/red emission ratio when the nanocrystals are embedded in the PMMA. This change could be related to a change in the up-conversion mechanism affected

by the presence of the high-energy phonons of the polymer, favoring the red emission in relation to the green emission which has decreased and the blue emission which has totally disappeared. For lighting applications, it is interesting to calculate the different parameters, which Veliparib nmr FRAX597 characterizes the color of the emission (see

Table 2). The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) coordinates (x, y) specify where the point corresponding to each emission is located on the chromaticity diagram. In this diagram, the color of the light emitted is factored by the sensitivity curves measured for the human eye (color matching functions) (Figure 9). The dominant wavelength is the point of interception in the spectrum locus for the line crossing the white point and the point of each emission, and the purity is the saturation of a particular color. The greater the purity, the more saturated selleck chemicals the color appears, that is, the more similar the color is to its spectrally pure color at the dominant wavelength. The values in

Table 2 show that embedding the nanocrystals inside the PMMA matrix does not strongly affect their colorimetric properties. Furthermore, the red emission has the greatest purity and therefore the most saturated color. Figure 9 CIE chromaticity diagram showing the emission colors for (Er,Yb):Lu 2 O 3 Ureohydrolase and (Er,Yb):Lu 2 O 3 nanocrystals embedded in PMMA microcolumns. Table 2 Summary of CIE properties of (Er,Yb):Lu 2 O 3 nanocrystals and (Er,Yb):Lu 2 O 3 nanocrystals embedded in PMMA microcolumns   Blue emission Green emission Red emission x y Purity Dominant wavelength x y Purity Dominant wavelength x y Purity Dominant wavelength (%) (nm) (%) (nm) (%) (nm) (Er,Yb):Lu2O3 nanocrystals 0.1746 0.0137 97 375 0.3402 0.6423 96 556 0.7222 0.2777 100 643 (Er,Yb):Lu2O3 nanocrystals embedded in PMMA 0.1753 0.0132 97 362 0.3016 0.6661 92 550-554 0.7209 0.2789 99 642 Conclusions The modified Pechini method was successfully applied to obtain cubic nanocrystals of Lu0.990Er0.520Yb0.490O3. Scherrer’s approach and electronic microscopy gave us an average size of about 15 to 30 nm with 44% dispersion size. The (Er,Yb):Lu2O3 nanocrystals were embedded in PMMA microcolumns prepared by vacuum infiltration. The PMMA columns solidified inside the micropores of a silicon matrix to form 2D disordered arrays.

1 This tool can help local governments promote and tailor sustai

1. This tool can help local governments promote and tailor sustainable activities to meet the needs and wants of residents. By applying the PAIRS metric and conducting an assessment survey, municipalities can gain a sense of what kinds of sustainability initiatives are viable and effective and which are likely to earn broad support or meet resistance. This knowledge can enable staff to effectively communicate environmentally focused projects to residents.   2. PAIRS can help cities identify highly effective and readily implemented practices which can leverage local resources or sustainability capital between two cities and even lead them full

circle back to more traditional sister city exchanges of informal cultural SHP099 supplier APO866 mouse capital.   3. Jointly pursuing sustainable development, as this method suggests, helps actors to effectively share the burden of developing and implementing new sustainable strategies. By utilizing PAIRS to locate a partner city to leverage existing resources and reap benefits not currently enjoyed, both cities can address their needs in a way that might be more cost-effective than pursuing them in isolation.   4. The PAIRS metric does not show bias toward any single sector and thus could encourage reciprocity in different sectors. One partner

might seek a collaboration to boost its sustainable water supply and offer a reciprocal exchange of compostable waste with a partner city. Thus, the balance of sustainable improvement is equal for both participating cities.   5. The PAIRS metric can be utilized over time to measure improvement and identify new areas in which to address sustainability as circumstances and needs evolve.   PAIRS represents an important innovation in sustainability science and an achievement in transdisciplinary research—the type of research needed to remediate Regorafenib concentration global problems (Stokols 2006). Unlike the more common interdisciplinary approach, which looks to short-term problem-solving and tends to have minimal impact on theory and the ever changing state of society,

this research draws on easily identifiable theoretical frameworks to PRIMA-1MET supplier provide a comprehensive analysis that goes beyond any singular discipline’s approach (Rosenfield 1992). Using the sister city model to foster cooperation among cities, a team of researchers from different disciplines produced a data-driven mathematical tool that cities can use to evaluate the prospects for improving sustainability practices by leveraging existing resources and establishing synergistic partnerships along key sustainability dimensions with neighboring cities. This project will serve not only to inspire more scholarly work on exploring new ways to increase sustainability in urban and rural settings, but also to implement changes in the manner in which sustainability objectives are pursued at the municipal level.