In addition, children hospitalised with gastroenteritis were analysed to determine the risk factors associated Trichostatin A purchase with acute gastroenteritis mortality and prolonged hospitalisation. Hospitalisation for acute gastroenteritis: any hospitalisation of a child under five years of age with a primary or secondary attending-physician diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. All hospital diagnoses had been coded using the ICD-9 classification of disease . Multiple episodes of acute gastroenteritis in the same
child were included if the subsequent hospitalisation occurred more than two weeks after the previous hospitalisation. We excluded episodes of gastroenteritis in which the duration of diarrhoea exceeded 14 days at the time of admission, or which were coded as chronic diarrhoea episodes. Gestational age was categorised as preterm (<37
weeks gestation at birth) or term (≥37 weeks gestation at birth). Degree of dehydration was categorised by the attending physician into those who were ≤2.5% dehydrated, >2.5% but ≤5%, >5% but ≤7.5%, and >7.5% dehydrated. Dehydration of >5% was categorised as severe dehydration. Weight-for-age Z-scores for boys and girls from birth to five years (WHO child growth standards) were used to classify children as being malnourished. Those with weight-for-age less than minus two standard deviations were classified as being malnourished on admission. In those participants in whom a weight on admission was not available, malnutrition was considered present if the physician diagnosed this website kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic–kwashiorkor at admission. Descriptive diagnosis and diagnosis codes by hospital physicians were used to Rutecarpine categorise participants as having a concomitant lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) on admission. Patients with positive blood culture of a significant bacterial pathogen were defined as having bacteraemia.
Outcomes assessed were death during hospitalisation and duration of hospitalisation. Prolonged hospitalisation was defined as duration of hospitalisation greater than the median. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Incidence rates were calculated using the total number of acute gastroenteritis episodes during the study period and the total person years contributed by all those in the cohort. The censoring point was the date the participant turned five or death, whichever occurred first. Incidence rates stratified by HIV infection were not calculable by using person time analysis because we only imputed the HIV prevalence in the cohort and did not test all children. The imputed number of HIV-infected children was used as the denominators for cumulative incidence calculations when stratifying by HIV infection status. Hospitalised cases with an indeterminate or unknown HIV infection status were considered HIV-uninfected for the purposes of cumulative incidence calculations.