In addition, children hospitalised with gastroenteritis were anal

In addition, children hospitalised with gastroenteritis were analysed to determine the risk factors associated Trichostatin A purchase with acute gastroenteritis mortality and prolonged hospitalisation. Hospitalisation for acute gastroenteritis: any hospitalisation of a child under five years of age with a primary or secondary attending-physician diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. All hospital diagnoses had been coded using the ICD-9 classification of disease [11]. Multiple episodes of acute gastroenteritis in the same

child were included if the subsequent hospitalisation occurred more than two weeks after the previous hospitalisation. We excluded episodes of gastroenteritis in which the duration of diarrhoea exceeded 14 days at the time of admission, or which were coded as chronic diarrhoea episodes. Gestational age was categorised as preterm (<37

weeks gestation at birth) or term (≥37 weeks gestation at birth). Degree of dehydration was categorised by the attending physician into those who were ≤2.5% dehydrated, >2.5% but ≤5%, >5% but ≤7.5%, and >7.5% dehydrated. Dehydration of >5% was categorised as severe dehydration. Weight-for-age Z-scores for boys and girls from birth to five years (WHO child growth standards) were used to classify children as being malnourished. Those with weight-for-age less than minus two standard deviations were classified as being malnourished on admission. In those participants in whom a weight on admission was not available, malnutrition was considered present if the physician diagnosed this website kwashiorkor, marasmus or marasmic–kwashiorkor at admission. Descriptive diagnosis and diagnosis codes by hospital physicians were used to Rutecarpine categorise participants as having a concomitant lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) on admission. Patients with positive blood culture of a significant bacterial pathogen were defined as having bacteraemia.

Outcomes assessed were death during hospitalisation and duration of hospitalisation. Prolonged hospitalisation was defined as duration of hospitalisation greater than the median. Data were analysed using STATA version 11.0 (StataCorp, TX, USA). Incidence rates were calculated using the total number of acute gastroenteritis episodes during the study period and the total person years contributed by all those in the cohort. The censoring point was the date the participant turned five or death, whichever occurred first. Incidence rates stratified by HIV infection were not calculable by using person time analysis because we only imputed the HIV prevalence in the cohort and did not test all children. The imputed number of HIV-infected children was used as the denominators for cumulative incidence calculations when stratifying by HIV infection status. Hospitalised cases with an indeterminate or unknown HIV infection status were considered HIV-uninfected for the purposes of cumulative incidence calculations.

Pour les antiagrégants,

l’utilisation de l’aspirine reste

Pour les antiagrégants,

l’utilisation de l’aspirine reste malgré tout assez homogène, tandis que celle des antiagrégants les plus puissants (anti-GP IIb-IIIa et prasugrel diminue très fortement avec l’âge ; l’utilisation du clopidogrel reste stable dans le NSTEMI, et augmente avec l’âge dans le STEMI). Pour ce qui est des anticoagulants, les héparines de bas poids moléculaire sont moins utilisées quand l’âge progresse, alors que l’héparine non fractionnée l’est plus ; l’utilisation du fondaparinux n’est pas see more affectée par l’âge. Les bêta-bloquants et les statines sont en net retrait dans les groupes d’âge élevé ; à l’inverse, l’utilisation des diurétiques croît de manière importante. Dans la population STEMI, la proportion des patients ayant reçu un traitement de reperfusion décroît avec l’âge ; néanmoins, 72 % des patients

âgés de 75 à 84 ans et 54 % de ceux de 85 ans et plus sont traités soit par angioplastie primaire, soit par fibrinolyse (figure 3). La grande majorité des patients fibrinolysés ont ensuite une coronarographie : 100 % des patients de moins de 75 ans, 96 % de ceux de 75 à 84 ans et 87,5 % de ceux de 85 ans et plus, celle-ci étant presque toujours suivie d’une angioplastie. Dans la population Selleckchem HKI-272 NSTEMI, l’utilisation des stratégies invasives (coronarographie avec ou sans revascularisation myocardique), quasi-systématique avant 65 ans, diminue avec l’âge (figure 4) ; l’angioplastie suit la même tendance alors que l’utilisation du pontage est maximale entre 65 et 74 ans. La mortalité hospitalière augmente considérablement avec l’âge (figure 5, tableau V). Dans le NSTEMI, elle reste cependant faible jusqu’à l’âge de 85 ans, tandis qu’elle croît nettement à partir only de 75 ans dans le STEMI. L’insuffisance cardiaque sévère augmente également (6,6 % avant 75 ans, 14,8 % entre 75 et 84 ans et 26 % à partir de 85 ans) ; les récidives de nécrose restent

rares (0,8 %, 1,2 % et 3,2 %, respectivement), alors que les AVC sont peu influencés par l’âge (0,4 %, 0,4 % et 0,7 %). Le risque de saignement TIMI majeur est peu influencé par l’âge (2,2 %, 2,6 % et 2,5 %, respectivement), mais le recours aux transfusions sanguines augmente fortement avec l’âge (2,2 %, 6,3 % et 7,6 %, respectivement). L’augmentation d’utilisation des transfusions paraît finalement plus liée à l’augmentation de prévalence d’une anémie documentée à l’admission (12,3 % des moins de 75 ans, 35,2 % entre 75 et 84 ans, et 43,9 % à partir de 85 ans) qu’à une augmentation du risque de complication hémorragique. De façon prévisible, les patients âgés représentent une population très spécifique, caractérisée par la présence plus fréquente d’antécédents cardiovasculaires et de comorbidités. Il s’agit pourtant d’une population numériquement importante, représentant près de 40 % des NSTEMI et plus de 25 % des STEMI.

The effects of inspiratory muscle training were more robust, with

The effects of inspiratory muscle training were more robust, with significant reductions in hospital length of stay (by a mean of 2.1 days) and risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (by 58%). To

obtain these benefits, clinicians should deliver inspiratory muscle training as follows: 6 to 7 times a week for two to four weeks (supervised once a week by a physiotherapist); starting at a resistance of 15 to 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure and increasing by 5% each session (or if the Borg scale < 5). It should be noted, however, that these findings were primarily from trials with participants at high risk of pulmonary complications. Thirteen patients would need to be treated with inspiratory muscle training to prevent one postoperative pulmonary complication. In

addition, shortening hospital length of stay by two days would be of considerable significance to the public healthcare system in Australia, particularly where earlier learn more discharge frees up beds to allow hospitals to meet emergency department treatment time targets. In addition, whether treating 13 patients preoperatively to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications is worthwhile depends on the cost-effectiveness of treatment and healthcare resource allocation, and the cost of the postoperative pulmonary complications. The resources required to prevent one postoperative pulmonary complication may be better utilised in other health areas if they generate better health outcomes. Furthermore, this review did not take into account unobserved or unreported benefits that may stem from avoiding selleck chemicals a postoperative pulmonary complications, for example, avoiding patient discomfort and the risk and cost of investigations or treatment (eg, chest radiograph, antibiotics). None of the studies investigating inspiratory muscle training reported on costs, but both studies of counselling/goal setting reported that their intervention was cost-effective. More research is therefore needed to ascertain whether the specific health benefits

applicable to each intervention are worthwhile and cost-effective, despite their statistically because significant effect. Two studies26 and 27 used a validated model to identify the risk of cardiac surgery patients developing a postoperative pulmonary complication37 and targeted their intervention to patients determined a priori as high-risk. It is therefore possible that preoperative inspiratory muscle training is most effective in people at risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications. Another study 28 attempted this risk stratification by targeting people diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) because, despite little evidence that people with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery are at higher risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, it could be expected that this would be observed, as in other populations such as people undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

Recently, the concept of “innate memory” has been proposed [4] an

Recently, the concept of “innate memory” has been proposed [4] and [5] and has also inspired the design of vaccination approaches

focused on the stimulation of innate immunity. Several fish vaccines against viral or bacterial diseases, most of which comprise inactivated pathogens are now available selleck screening library [6]. However, researchers are working intensively to enhance vaccine efficiency by developing new vaccines, containing adjuvants and immunostimulants [7], and new formulations based on encapsulation [8], [9], [10], [11] and [12]. Encapsulating vaccines makes them more stable to the environment and to low pH and/or enzymatic reactions inside the treated organism [12] and [13]. Among the various encapsulation systems available, liposomes are especially attractive, as they are biocompatible and highly tuneable [14]; can actually enhance the efficacy of the vaccine, as has been reported in fish [15] and [16]; and can be used as labels to enable in vitro or in vivo tracking of the vaccine. Another factor

that researchers are endeavouring to improve in fish vaccines is administration, which is typically done by injection in adults. Research efforts are focused on creating non-stressful, easy to manage and low-cost vaccination GSK1210151A mouse protocols to improve large-scale procedures based on immersion rather than on injection [6] and [17]. Our group recently developed nanoliposomes (called NLcliposomes) for simultaneous wide-spectrum anti-bacterial and anti-viral protection of farm-raised fish. First, we co-encapsulate two general immunostimulants: bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of dsRNA viruses. Then, we demonstrated that the NLc liposomes

Cell press were taken up in vitro by macrophages and that they regulated the expression of immunologically relevant genes (likely, by triggering innate immune signalling pathways) [18]. In the work reported here, we studied the biodistribution and immunological efficacy of NLc liposomes in zebrafish in vivo. We chose zebrafish as the model organism for the in vivo assays for multiple reasons: they have been widely used to study the pathogenicity of different fish and human pathogens; they have innate and adaptive immune systems; and they are easy to breed and handle [19]. We adapted a non-invasive imaging method widely used in mammalian models [20] and [21], and then used it to track the nanoliposomes in adult zebrafish in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method being applied to live zebrafish. In addition, we studied which cells were preferentially targeted by the NLc liposomes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), by performing ex vivo analysis of the main immune relevant tissues. We also developed a new model for infection of adult zebrafish by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen in fish and in humans [22] and [23].

After reading abstracts and reviewing the full text, 33 studies (

After reading abstracts and reviewing the full text, 33 studies (26 – India, 5 – Bangladesh, 2 – Pakistan) fulfilled the a priori selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis ( Table 1). Fourteen of the titles represented recent data not available in past reviews [18], [37] and [63] and included studies using more advanced molecular methods for strain characterization. Both frontline urban hospitals and rural community health centers served as surveillance sites for collecting samples. Studies characterized both symptomatic

and asymptomatic rotavirus cases from rainy and dry seasons. A large variation in laboratory methods to detect rotavirus types was observed, with earlier studies (before 1994) relying principally on ELISA and PAGE, and later studies utilizing more advanced molecular RT-PCR techniques. Prior to 1994, two studies check details utilized PAGE, two utilized ELISA, and three utilized RT-PCR. From 1995 to 1999, 11 studies were published with 4 reporting PAGE techniques and 6 reporting RT-PCR; one study did not specify laboratory methods. The 15 studies from 2000 to 2009 relied entirely upon RT-PCR

for genotyping, which represents the first time period that all results were fully based on RT-PCR techniques. Overall, due to their later discovery in humans, 25 of the 33 studies (76%) did not use typing agents for detection of G12 while 11 of the earlier studies (33%) did not determine the G9 type. This is reflected in the proportion of “untypeable” strains that were NVP-AUY922 purchase observed. When untyped strains were considered in the denominator of all tested specimens, 23.7% were untypeable prior to 2000. However, after 2000, when molecular typing methods were used and included primers for the G9 and G12 strains, the proportion of untypeable strains was reduced to 13.7%. A similar trend was noted in the results for the VP4 P-type, where 21.3% of strains could not be typed before 2000, compared to 16.3% after 2000, probably due to the wider range of primer sets used. The 33 studies provide data on 9,153 rotavirus samples examined for the VP7 G-type, while 21 studies present results

for 4,842 VP4 P-types. Among typeable G-samples (n = 7703) over the period covered in this review (1983–2009), the four most globally Thymidine kinase common types, G1 (31.4%), G2 (29.4%), G3 (3.6%), and G4 (13.8%), represented approximately 78% of total samples. During this same time period, G9 (11.2%), G-Mixed (6.9%), and G12 (3.7%) were also identified ( Table 2). For the P-types, between 1983 and 2009, P[4] (29.3%) and P[8] (44.7%) represented approximately 75% of all the 4148 typeable P-strains, with P[6] (15.2%) and P-Mixed (10.8%) also present ( Table 3). However, the percentages of uncommon G-types and mixed P-types reported may not accurately reflect the true proportions circulating in the population due to the number of untypeable strains showing current techniques.

The λmax fell in the range 477–487 nm which corroborates with the

The λmax fell in the range 477–487 nm which corroborates with the range of 480–490 nm published for more limited subsets of carbohydrates [20], [25] and [26]. For hexose sugars (n = 11), the mean λmax = 485 ± 3 nm and for pentose sugars (n = 2), the mean λmax = 477 ± 1 nm. From this dataset, a fixed value of 485 nm was determined to

provide robust measurement of diverse polysaccharides in the modified PHS assay. Using a wavelength of 485 nm, standard curves were generated for the library of polysaccharides, with the corresponding gradient functions provided in Fig. 3. In the modified PHS assay, hexoses absorb more strongly than pentoses at 485 nm. This order is maintained even if the λmax for pentoses is used for the absorbance measurement. The anionic polysaccharides absorb far less per unit mass than do the neutral carbohydrates. In large part, this is due to the presence of non-signalling anions

such as sulfate. It has been previously shown that for complex oligosaccharides containing different hexoses, the summed contribution of the reactive hexoses equates to the approximate reactivity of the polysaccharide [25]. Moreover, as N-acetyl galactosamine, N-acetyl glucosamine, and N-acetyl neuraminic acid have been demonstrated to insignificantly react in the PHS assay (data not shown), the contributions of certain structures can be discounted if other reactive pentoses and hexoses are present [26]. Similarly, the organic and inorganic anion groups do not signal and can also be disregarded. After applying these data transformations to oligosaccharides comprised of similar Ku-0059436 manufacturer repeating sugar components, the absorbance response converges on a single line as a function of the concentration of particular reactive monosaccharide (Fig. 4). The data in Fig. 4 can be used to approximate the expected reactivity of diverse carbohydrates. Of the carbohydrate classes tested, the hexoses produced the highest absorptivity

in the modified PHS assay. The absorbance of heteropolysaccharides can be approximated by the addition of the reactive components. However, it was noted that addition was imperfect when heteropolysaccharides composed of both glucuronic acid and glucose were summed, as the polysaccharide containing both units reacted slightly less than the sum of the independently mafosfamide generated glucose and glucuronic acid curves. To facilitate appropriate comparisons, the molar absorptivities of the reactive units are displayed in Table 3. The absorptivity values in the modified PHS method are consistent with those described in the original PHS papers by DuBois et al. [20]. The absorptivities measured in the described PHS assay underpinned the spectrum of dynamic linear ranges depicted in Fig. 5. Having an elevated lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) is advantageous when monitoring the array of concentrations across a microplate where the load material titre is 0.5–5 mg/mL.

This veterinary vaccine

protects 98% of vaccinated dogs a

This veterinary vaccine

protects 98% of vaccinated dogs and blocks the transmission of the disease in endemic areas [1], [2] and [3]. In the Americas and the Mediterranean, visceral leishmaniasis is an immunosuppressive zoonotic disease transmitted from dogs to humans through the byte of a sand fly vector [4]. The disease is fatal in humans and dogs if untreated and treatment is highly toxic and not always efficient. The epidemiological control of the disease see more includes the treatment of human cases, insect vector control with insecticides and the culling of seropositive/infected dogs. Human or canine vaccines are expected to be effective tools for the prophylactic control of epidemics [5]. The recent canine vaccinations with the Leishmune® vaccine in Brazil reduced the incidence of human cases, human deaths and dog prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic areas [6]. In districts where the vaccinations occurred the canine and human incidence decreased or achieved a stabilized

plateau while in non-vaccinated districts the incidences rose [6]. Leishmune® is the FML-saponin vaccine [1], [3], [7] and [8] composed of the FML (Fucose Mannose ligand) antigen [9], a complex glycoproteic fraction of Leishmania donovani, and a Quillaja saponaria saponin adjuvant (Riedel de Haën-Sigma) [revised in 3]. The main active components of the Leishmune® adjuvant are the well known QS21 saponin and the two deacylated SCR7 cell line saponins that only differ from the QS21 due to the absence of the hydrophobic moiety [10]. Saponins are a structurally diverse class of natural compounds occurring in several plant species. According to previous reports the most common components of the saponin core are the triterpenoid and steroid aglycones to which carbohydrate chains

are attached [11]. They exhibit from one to three straight or branched sugar chains Parvulin which most often include d-glucose, l-rhamnose, d-galactose, d-glucuronic acid, l-arabinose, d-xylose or d-fucose. The sugar chain can contain from one or more monosaccharide residues, and is usually attached at the C-3 of the triterpene [11]. The correlation between structure and function of saponins has been the focus of intensive research in order to define the essential moieties for the development of the adjuvant activity [10], [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15]. Saponins with steroid but not with triterpene aglycones are considered to be the most hemolytic [12] and [16]. Alternatively, the hemolytic or membranolytic activity has been attributed to the oligosaccharide moiety of saponins [13], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21] and [22]. And the saponins with two glycidic chains attached to the aglycone, called bidesmosidic [10] and [14], have been shown to be more immunogenic than the monodesmosidic ones [14]. In the QS21 saponin of Q.

Average (mean) daily weight gain (ADG) and feed conversions (F:G;

Average (mean) daily weight gain (ADG) and feed conversions (F:G; ratio of feed weight to gained weight of cattle) were calculated as: ADG=Total weight gain of cattle (as defined below)Total cattle days F:G=Total dry matter weight of feedTotal weight gain of cattle (as defined below)where total weight gain of cattle equals out-weight of cattle finishing the trial plus out-weight of cattle culled plus out-weight of dead cattle minus total enrollment weight

of cattle. Feedlot personnel performed daily health monitoring following standardized procedures. Animals were weighed individually at the beginning and end of the study. Fresh fecal samples (30/pen) from animals observed defecating were collected from separate pats in multiple areas throughout the pen. Care was taken to avoid ground contamination. Pens were SNS-032 datasheet sampled weekly for four consecutive weeks prior to study end-dates for each block. Samples (approximately 30 g) were placed in sterile bags, stored in coolers, and transported to KSU for refrigeration (4 °C) until the following morning. Samples were cultured for E. coli O157:H7 using IMS and direct plating methods previously described [7] and [8]. Confirmation included a multiplex PCR for identifying the rfbE (O157), eae (intimin), stx1 (Shiga toxin 1), stx2 (Shiga toxin 2), hlyA (hemolysin),

and fliC (H7) genes [17]. Pen-level general and generalized linear mixed models (LMM and GLMM, respectively) selleck screening library were used to assess potential treatment effects. For response variables recorded as pen-level proportions, data were fit using a GLMM with a binomial distribution and a logit link. Prevalence outcomes were the proportion of

samples positive of the total samples collected within the pen at each sampling. Mortality and culling risks were proportions based on the number of animals that died or were culled, respectively, during the study period out of the total number of animals enrolled within the pen. Data on ADG and F:G were modeled using LMM that assume a Gaussian distribution. For all models, random effects were fitted to recognize block as the clustering factor and pen as the experimental unit for treatment. For E. coli data, additional random effects were used to account for pen-specific repeated Phosphoprotein phosphatase measures over time. Independent variables included treatments (VAC, DFM, VAC x DFM interaction), and for E. coli data, effects of time and time-by-treatment interaction. Model diagnostics were based on studentized residuals (LMM) and functions of the Pearson χ2 statistic (GLMM). P values <0.05 were considered significant. Model-adjusted means (lsmeans back transformed to original scale) and SE were reported, and used to estimate vaccine efficacy using standard formula [18]. Study pens were filled with 17,148 steers. Pen sizes ranged between 398 and 464 steers (mean = 430.0). Mean weight at enrollment was 378.

One to

two weeks before the study, participants visited t

One to

two weeks before the study, participants visited the Pulmonary Research Room at Khon Kaen University to determine one repetition RO4929097 molecular weight maximum (1 RM) of both quadriceps muscles (Armstrong et al 2006) and familiarise themselves with the procedures. Participants were randomised to receive the experimental intervention (breathing with conical-PEP during exercise) and the control intervention (normal breathing during exercise) in the following order: either conical-PEP breathing followed by normal breathing and then vice versa or normal breathing followed by conical-PEP breathing and then vice versa (Figure 1). The recruiters were blinded to order of intervention because randomisation happened at a different site from recruitment. There was a washout period of at least 30 minutes between the four

interventions where participants rested so that heart rate, blood pressure, and inspiratory capacity returned to their initial pre-exercise level. Lung capacity, breathlessness and leg discomfort were measured pre and immediately post each intervention and cardiorespiratory function was measured pre and during the last 30 seconds of exercise by an assessor not blinded to the order of intervention. Statistical analysis was carried out by an investigator blinded to the order of intervention. Patients were included in the trial if they had moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease DNA-PK inhibitor defined as forced expiratory volume in one second per forced vital capacity < 70%; forced expiratory volume in one second that was 30–79%

predicted and this reduction was not fully reversible after inhalation of a bronchodilator (Rabe et al 2007); were clinically stable and free of exacerbations for more than four weeks defined by change to pharmacological therapy, admission to hospital or emergency room, or unscheduled clinic visit; were independent of long term oxygen or domiciliary non-invasive positive pressure ventilation; and could communicate well. They were excluded if they had musculoskeletal impairments that limited leg mobility, cardiovascular disease, Megestrol Acetate neurological or psychiatric illness, or any other co-morbidities which would interfere with exercise. Medications were not changed and patients were administered a long lasting bronchodilator two hours prior to the start of the protocol to reduce static hyperinflation. The experimental intervention was conical-PEP breathing during exercise. Leg extension exercise at a load 30% of 1 RM with weights firmly strapped to the ankles, was carried out with the participants in sitting. Both legs were exercised, alternately, with approximately 15 contractions per leg per minute, while breathing through the mouthpiece fitted with conical-PEP (Figure 2). The conical-PEP device has a fixed orifice resistor consisting of a small conical plastic tube 4 cm in length and 2.5 cm and 0.

8 The leaves, roots, bark, and fruits have all been used medicina

8 The leaves, roots, bark, and fruits have all been used medicinally to treat a wide range of ailments. These include, but are not limited to, diabetes, diarrhea, hypertension, malaria, pain, and tropical infections. The fruits are also eaten as a food, but primarily only in times of famine. 9 However, Lucas interpreted elements of the following ancient Hawaiian chant (recorded in 1861 about the interactions between the Gods Kamapua’a and Pele) as evidence that Noni fruit was once eaten in times of famine. 10 Kamapua’a chanted as follows: “I have come now from Puna. Liver is a major site of endogenous glucose production

with a minor contribution to kidney, produces GDC-0449 ic50 glucose by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Numerous studies have provided prominent indication that RAD001 molecular weight hepatic glucose production theaters an authoritative role in the development of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. The enzymes that regulates hepatic glucose metabolism are potential targets for controlling endogenous glucose production and thereby blood glucose levels in diabetes. Hence, the present study was premeditated to gauge the regulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Mengkudu fruit (MFE) on blood glucose, glycogen, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels and glucose metabolic rate limiting enzymes such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, LDH, glucose-6-phosphatase,

fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in hepatic and renal tissues in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. Figure options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slide The above images

represent ripened Mengkudu fruit. Fresh fruits of M. citrifolia were collected from its natural habitat in the Center for Organic Indian Noni, Madurantakam, Tamil Nadu, India and were authenticated viz. ETARC 03/07-2008. The seeds were selectively removed and the edible part was chopped into small pieces, dried these at 50–60 °C, and ground into powder. Known amount of dry powder was repeatedly extracted by the process of maceration in an aspirator using 95% ethanol as menstruum. The extract was concentrated under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator to obtain thick syrup mass, and stored at 4 °C. The yield was approximately 20% of fresh fruit. Working concentrations of the extract were made in nonpyrogenic distilled water before use in the experiments. Animal experiments were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. (Approval no. 01/022/08). Male Wistar albino rats weighing 160–180 g procured from Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai, India were used. The rats were acclimatized and maintained over husk bedding in polypropylene cages in the central animal house facility of the institution.