Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus,

Other lymnaeids such as Lymnaea fuscus, see more L. glabra and/or Radix balthica are living in meadows around these farms but only juvenile snails can sustain complete larval development of F. hepatica while older snails were resistant. The low prevalence of infection ( smaller than 20%) and limited cercarial production ( smaller than 50 cercariae per infected snail) noted with these juveniles could not explain the high values noted in these cattle herds. As paramphistomosis due to Calicophoron daubneyi was not still noted in these farms,

the existence of another mode of infection was hypothesized. Experimental infection of several successive generations of L. glabra, originating from eggs laid by their parents already infected with this parasite resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence of snail infection and the number of shed cercariae. The aim of this paper was to determine

if this mode of snail infection was specific to L. glabra, or it might occur in other lymnaeid species such as L. fuscus and GSK1120212 datasheet R. balthica. Methods: Five successive generations of L. fuscus and R. balthica were subjected to individual bimiracidial infections in the laboratory. Resulting rediae and cercariae in the first four generations were counted after snail dissection at day 50 p.e. (20 degrees C), while the dynamics of cercarial shedding was followed in the F5 generation. Results: In the first experiment, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails progressively increased from the F1 (R. balthica) or F2 (L. fuscus) generation. In the second experiment, the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the number of shed cercariae were significantly lower in L. fuscus and R. balthica (without significant differences between both lymnaeids) than in G. truncatula.

Conclusion: The F. hepatica infection of several successive snail generations, coming from parents infected with this parasite, resulted in a progressive increase in prevalence and intensity of snail infection. This may explain high prevalence of fasciolosis noted in several cattle-breeding farms when the common snail host of this digenean, G. truncatula, is lacking.”
“Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection P005091 in vitro is a global health problem estimated to affect almost 200 million people worldwide. The aim of this study is to analyze the subtypes and existence of variants resistant to protease inhibitors and their association with potential HCV risk factors among blood donors in Brazil. Methods: Repeat anti-HCV reactive blood donors are systematically asked to return for retest, notification, and counseling in which they are interviewed for risk factors for transfusion-transmitted diseases. We analyzed 202 donors who returned for counseling from 2007 to 2010 and presented enzyme immunoassay-and immunoblot-reactive results.

However, such an approach should be applied with caution and nece

However, such an approach should be applied with caution and necessitates close follow-up on a long-term basis. (Tex Heart Inst J 2011;38(2):197-200)”
“Classical Chinese poems have strict regulations on the acoustic pattern of each syllable and are semantically meaningless. Using ABT-737 such poems, this study characterized the temporal order of tone and vowel processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). The target syllable of the poem was either correct or deviated from the correct syllable at

tone, vowel or both levels. Vowel violation elicited a negative effect between 300 and 500 ms regardless of the tone correctness, while tone violation elicited a positive effect between 600 and 1000 ms. The results suggest that the vowel information was available earlier than the tone information. Moreover, there was an interaction between the effect of vowel and tone violations between 600 and 1000 ms, showing that the vowel violation produced a positive effect only when the tone was correct. This indicates that vowel

and tone processing interacts in the later processing stage, which involves both error detection and reanalysis of the spoken input. Implications of the present results for models of speech perception are discussed.”
“Objectives: Perry syndrome consists of autosomal dominant Parkinsonism, depression, weight loss, and central hypoventilation. Eight mutations in 16 families have been reported: p.F52L, p.G67D, p.G71R, p.G71E, p.G71A, p.T72P, p.Q74P, and p.Y78C located in exon 2 of the dynactin 1 Anlotinib supplier (DCTN1) gene on chromosome 2p13.1. Methods: Genealogical, clinical, genetic, and functional studies were performed in three kindreds from New Zealand, the United States, and Colombia. A diaphragmatic pacemaker was implanted in the proband from the Colombian family to treat her respiratory

STI571 price insufficiency. Dopaminergic therapy was initiated in probands from two families. Results: Besides the probands, 17 symptomatic relatives from all families were identified. The cardinal signs of Perry syndrome were present in all three probands with symptomatic disease onset in their fifth or sixth decade of life. Parkinsonism was moderate with a partial response to dopaminergic treatment. All affected persons but two died of respiratory insufficiency. The proband from the Colombian family is alive most likely due to early diagnosis and implantation of a diaphragmatic pacemaker. Two-and-a-half-year follow-up examination has revealed that the diaphragmatic pacemaker is optimally functioning without any major complications. In the Colombian and US families, the DCTN1 p.G71R and in the New Zealand family the DCTN1 p.Y78C mutations were identified. In functional assays, both mutations altered microtubule binding consistent with a pathogenic role. Conclusions: Perry syndrome is a rare condition, but new cases are expected to be diagnosed worldwide. Early diagnosis prevents life-threatening acute respiratory failure.

In this study, mass spectrometry based metabolomics was employed

In this study, mass spectrometry based metabolomics was employed to identify biochemical signatures in human urine that differentiate bladder cancer from non-cancer controls. Over 1000 distinct compounds were measured including 587 named compounds of known chemical identity. Napabucasin Initial biomarker identification was conducted using a 332 subject sample set of retrospective urine samples (cohort 1), which included 66 BCa positive samples. A set of 25 candidate biomarkers was selected based on statistical significance,

fold difference and metabolic pathway coverage. The 25 candidate biomarkers were tested against an independent urine sample set (cohort 2) using random forest analysis, with palmitoyl sphingomyelin, lactate, adenosine and succinate providing the strongest predictive power for differentiating cohort 2 cancer from non-cancer urines. Cohort 2 metabolite profiling revealed additional metabolites, including arachidonate, that were higher in cohort 2 cancer vs. non-cancer controls, but see more were below quantitation limits in

the cohort 1 profiling. Metabolites related to lipid metabolism may be especially interesting biomarkers. The results suggest that urine metabolites may provide a much needed non-invasive adjunct diagnostic to cystoscopy for detection of bladder cancer and recurrent disease management.”
“Automatic Kinship verification aims at recognizing the degree of kinship of two individuals from their facial images and it has possible applications in image retrieval and

annotation, forensics and historical studies. This is a recent and challenging problem, which must deal with different degrees of kinship and variations in age and gender. Our work explores the computer identification of parent-child pairs using a combination of (i) features of different natures, based on geometric and textural data, (ii) feature selection and (iii) state-of-the-art classifiers. Experiments show that the proposed approach provides a valuable solution Z-IETD-FMK in vivo to the kinship verification problem, as suggested by its comparison with different methods on the same data and the same experimental protocols. We further show the good generalization capabilities of our method in several cross-database experiments.”
“Background: Biomarkers of myocardial necrosis may be increased in patients with chronic heart failure. We investigated whether ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), a marker of ischaemia, is also elevated in patients with compensated heart failure, due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).\n\nMethods: We studied 42 patients with DCM and an equal number of age-matched normal volunteers. We assessed IMA serum levels with the albumin cobalt binding test.\n\nResults: IMA was 89.9 +/- 13.1 (71-117) KU/L in the patient group and 93.9 +/- 9.9 (76-122) KU/L in the control group, with no significant difference between the two (P = 0.11).


for decreasing the control gate capacitance, the di


for decreasing the control gate capacitance, the dimension of the control gate depends not on the electron beam or photolithography method. The control gate is formed by the controllability of the chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Owing to this small capacitance we have clear Coulomb oscillation peaks and negative differential trans-conductance curves at room temperature. The oscillation period of the fabricated device is approximately 1.9V. (C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied 3-deazaneplanocin A Physics”
“Correction of a bunion deformity with the use of proximal first ray procedures has historically included additional distal soft tissue and bone work about the first metatarsophalangeal joint. We report the case of a young adult female who underwent isolated first tarsometatarsal fusion for correction of a bunion deformity. Moreover, we describe the published data related to this approach. This technique could have the potential to improve patient outcomes by avoiding postoperative arthrofibrosis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. (C) 2014 by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. All rights reserved.”
“Cryptobranchus guildayi has been described as an extinct species of large salamander that is related closely to the modern Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. The validity of this extinct taxon has

been questioned; thus, an expanded osteological sample of modern Hellbenders was compared to the Selleckchem GDC-0994 C. guildayi fossil material. Based on our analysis GNS-1480 clinical trial of the fossil material, all morphological characters used to define C. guildayi

can be observed in specimens of C. alleganiensis, or are based on misidentifications. Therefore, C. guildayi is considered to be conspecific with C. alleganiensis and taxonomically should be considered a junior synonym of the latter. The reassignment of the C. guildayi specimens to C. alleganiensis expands the prehistoric geographical range of the modern species to the Potomac River and its tributaries and also extends the age of the species into the Irvingtonian North American land mammal age.”
“Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation.

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome

Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum contained the most altered genes in the LPS group, but the percentage of phagosome pathway almost

doubled in BHT group. Most DEGs involved in the LPS signal recognition system was up-regulated in LPS group, but partly decreased in BHT group. RT-PCR results of eight relative genes were consistent with the results of microarrays. Conclusion: DEGs of LPS febrile syndrome mainly involved oxidoreductase and catalytic activity of the metabolic processes, and learn more pathways of processing protein for pyrotoxin recognition; BHT mostly regulated the DEGs in the phagosome pathway to clear LPS in the liver, and partly interfered with gene expression

in LPS recognition system. The study provided an important pioneering result on gene expression profiling research, and will facilitate Nutlin-3 in vitro the clinical care or further studies of the formula. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Lactobacillus plantarum strains were isolated from fully ripened, white brined Bulgarian home-made cheeses. Strains were derived from phenotypically homogenous Lactobacillus group and were identified as L. plantarum based on both phenotypic and molecular identification (species-specific and multiplex PCR) methods. Heterogeneity of L. plantarum isolates was evaluated by Rep-PCR analysis.\n\nFurther antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and transit

tolerance of the strains were evaluated. Most of them showed broad spectrum of activity against Gram-negative bacteria (including human pathogens) independent on the presence of organic acids or hydrogen peroxide.\n\nAll strains were sensitive to amoxicillin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, Selleckchem PD-L1 inhibitor resistant to clinically relevant beta-lactame antibiotics (penicillin and ampicillin) and to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and vancomycin. Significant variability in the sensitivity to tetracycline was noted.\n\nThe tolerance to low pH, bile salts, pepsin and pancreatin at concentrations similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract was strain-dependent. The exposure to bile salts was less destructive than exposure to pH 2.0 for all tested strains. Based on their combined responses to the above selection criteria, four L. plantarum strains, RL29, RL34, RL36 and RL37, were selected as potential probiotics for in vivo studies.”
“The syntheses, structures and biological evaluation of a series of cisplatin-like complexes containing bis (imidazole) derivatives – the so-called Joseph ligands – are described. Their cytotoxicity is discussed in terms of their polar surface area, rate of aquation, and lipophilicity. The X-ray crystal structure of the platinum diiodido derivative of dimethyl 2-(di(1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl)malonate) is reported and compared to those of related systems.

Zingiberaceae), was found to be a

Zingiberaceae), was found to be a learn more potential anti-inflammatory agent. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and explore the protective mechanism of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced kidney inflammation in mice using gene chip and pathological technology. Nine SPF Kunming mice (aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 20-25 g) were divided into three groups. Saline and LPS were injected intraperitoneally in a normal control group and a model group, respectively. Mice in the treatment group were first injected with curcumin (5 mg/kg) for 3 days before being

injected with LPS (5 mg/kg). Kidney tissues were harvested at 6 h after treatment. Parts of kidney were fixed with 10 % formaldehyde for HE, Periodic acid-Schiff staining, and immunohistochemistry. Affymetrix gene chips (mouse 430 chip) were used to detect the renal gene expression profile, and the results were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. The renal gene expression

profile showed that there are 148 Affy IDs (up-down group) whose levels of gene expression were increased after LPS stimulation and decreased by curcumin treatment and that there are 133 Affy IDs (down-up group) exhibiting the opposite trend. In the differentially expressed genes of the up-down group, 21 Gene Ontology (GO) genes were selected by screening function (P a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.01). In the biological processes, most

of the genes were found to be related to the genes of regulation Doramapimod order of macrophage activation and macrophage activation-associated genes. In the cellular buy Ricolinostat localization, there were four functional GO genes (P a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.01); in the molecular structure, there were seven functional GO genes (P a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.01). In the down-up group, there were functional GO genes (P a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.01) and one functional GO gene (P a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.01) in the biological process and the cellular localization, respectively. Macrophage infiltration could be observed as early as 6 h after LPS stimulation. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg of curcumin significantly decreased the macrophage infiltration. At 6 h after LPS injection, significant decreased expression of M6PRBP-1 and NEDD-4 was observed in renal tissue. On the other hand, pretreatment with curcumin significantly increased renal M6PRBP-1 and NEDD-4 expression. In this study, we also found the signaling pathway and the possible target gene of the protective effects of curcumin on endotoxin-induced renal inflammation. The kidney gene expression profile in the inflammatory state was clarified by using gene chip technology. Furthermore, we confirmed that curcumin treatment can change the gene expression profile.

15% +/- 1 7 (baseline), + 3 7% +/- 2 3 (Month 1), + 4 0% +/- 2 0

15% +/- 1.7 (baseline), + 3.7% +/- 2.3 (Month 1), + 4.0% +/- 2.0 (Month 2), and + 4.95% +/- 1.9 (Month 3), none of which showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.12, 0.17, and 0.14, respectively). Central retinal thickness, as measured

by spectral domain optical coherence Small molecule library supplier tomography, decreased significantly from 435.2 +/- 131.8 mu m (baseline) to 372.3 +/- 142.8 mu m (Month 3), P = 0.01. Regression analysis of arteriolar and venular diameters indicated that there was no significant correlation between these 2 parameters (r = 0.053; P = 0.835 and r = 0.06; P = 0.817, respectively). Also, no significant correlation was observed between the difference in the central retinal thickness and change in arteriolar or venular dilatation (r = 0.291, P = 0.241 and r = 0.06, P = 0.435, respectively). Conclusion: Intravitreally applied ranibizumab did not significantly affect

retinal vessel diameter in patients with diabetic macular edema. Decline in the central foveal thickness after ranibizumab therapy, as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, was not linked to any change in retinal vessel diameter or dilatatory response, neither for arterioles nor venules.”
“Study Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Oxiplex/AP gel (Intercoat) in reducing intrauterine adhesion formation after hysteroscopic treatment because of retained WH-4-023 datasheet products of conception (RPOC). Design: Prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot study (Canadian Task Force classification I). Setting: Tertiary medical center. Patients: All women who underwent hysteroscopic treatment because of RPOC at our institution between September 2009 and June 2012 were invited to participate. After operative hysteroscopy, participants BI-D1870 concentration were randomized to either have their uterine cavity filled with Oxiplex/AP gel (study group, n = 26) or not (control group, n = 26). Interventions: Diagnostic office hysteroscopy to assess for adhesion formation was performed after 6 to 8 weeks. Findings were graded according to the American Fertility Society classification. Rates of subsequent pregnancy in the 2 groups were assessed. Measurements

and Main Results: Intraoperative complication rates were similar between the 2 groups. There were no postoperative complications after Oxiplex/AP gel application. Moderate to severe adhesions developed in 1 woman (4%) in the study group and 3 (14%) in the control group (p = .80). During follow-up of 20 months (range, 2-33 months), 7 women (27%) in the treatment group conceived, compared with 3 (14%) in the control group (p = .50). Conclusion: Intrauterine application of Oxiplex/AP gel after hysteroscopic removal of RPOC is safe. In this small sample, the difference in the rate of intrauterine adhesions was not statistically significant. A larger study would enable further establishment of the safety and efficacy of use of this gel. (C) 2014 AAGL. All rights reserved.

Histological analysis showed high connexin 43 coupling, few infla

Histological analysis showed high connexin 43 coupling, few inflammatory cells, and low fibrotic markers in myocardium implanted with these phorbol myristate acetate-activated MSCs. Infarct hearts implanted with these cells exhibited restoration of conduction velocity through decreased tissue heterogeneity and improved myocardial contractility. These findings have major implications for the development of better cell types for Small molecule library supplier electromechanical integration of cell-based treatment for infarcted myocardium.”
“This paper studies

integrated simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal as well as worm predation, in a circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor (CFBBR) operated with an anoxic-aerobic bioparticle recirculation. A lab-scale CFBBR with a 8.5-liter reaction zone comprising 2 L anoxic and 6.5 L aerobic compartments was designed to evaluate the aquatic Oligochaete worm effect. Long-term (200 days) performance showed that stable and high-rate chemical oxygen demand (COD) with sodium acetate as the carbon source and total LDN-193189 mouse nitrogen (NH4Cl

as nitrogen source) conversions were achieved simultaneously, with low sludge production of 0.082 g VSS (volatile suspended solids) g COD-1 at pseudo-steady-state. Worm predation, which causes considerable sludge reduction of the bioparticle process, was studied. The results proved that the worm predation has a significant impact on the pseudo-steady-state Barasertib ic50 performance of the CFBBR, decreasing biomass yield, decreasing oxygen concentration and increasing expanded bed height. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Acute renal failure (ARF) is common after cardiac surgery and more frequent after complex cardiac surgery. While the incidence of ARF is increasing after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, trends in other forms of cardiac surgery

remain unclear. We investigated the trend of ARF in various cardiac procedures and compared patterns using CABG surgery as a reference group. The study population consisted of discharges from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1988 to 2003, grouped according to surgery as: CABG, CABG with mitral valve, CABG with other valve, valve alone, and heart transplant. Standard diagnostic codes were used to identify ARF among discharges. Multivariable regression was used to determine trends in ARF among various procedures with CABG as a reference group. The incidence of ARF increased in all five groups (p < 0.001) over the 16-year period. The ARF incidence was highest in the heart transplant group (17%). Compared to the CABG population, patients following heart transplantation developed ARF at higher rates during the study period. In contrast, while ARF increased over time in other groups, the rates of rise were slower than in CABG patients. Among heart surgery procedures, ARF incidence is highest in heart transplantation.

A comprehensive

study was conducted using both an experim

A comprehensive

study was conducted using both an experimental and a predictive analytical mechanical analysis for mechanical property Selleck ACY-241 assessment as well as an extensive in vitro biological analysis for in situ mineralization. Cell proliferation was evaluated using a PicoGreen dsDNA quantification assay and in situ mineralization was analyzed using both an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay and an Alizarin Red stain-based assay. Mineralized matrix formation was further evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and visualized using SEM and histological analyses. Compressive mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffolds were determined using a confined compression stress-relaxation protocol and the obtained data was fit to the standard linear solid viscoelastic material EGFR inhibitor mathematical model to demonstrate a relationship between increased in situ mineralization and the mechanical properties of the PN-COL scaffold. Cell proliferation was constant over the 21 day period. ALP activity and calcium concentration significantly increased at day 14 and 21 as compared to

PN-COL osteo with undifferentiated osteoblast progenitor cells. Furthermore, at day 21 EDS, SEM and von Kossa histological staining confirmed mineralized matrix formation within the PN-COL scaffolds. After 21 days, compressive modulus, peak stress, and equilibrium stress demonstrate significant increases of 3.4-fold, 3.3-fold, and 4.0-fold respectively due to in situ mineralization. Viscoelastic parameters calculated through the standard linear solid mathematical model fit to the stress-relaxation data also indicate improved mechanical properties after in situ mineralization. This investigation selleck screening library clearly demonstrates that in situ mineralization can increase the mechanical properties of an injectable orthobiologic scaffold and can possibly guide the design of an effective osteoconductive injectable

material. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Through comparative gene mapping, NICE-3, which is closely linked to tropomyosin 3 in human chromosome 1, was selected to be investigated as a new candidate gene associated with the muscle development in pigs. This gene was sequenced, chromosome mapped, expression analyzed, subcellularly localized, and promoter activity analyzed. After screening and sequencing, porcine NICE-3 was found in a bacterial artificial chromosome clone containing tropomyosin 3. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that NICE-3 mRNA was widely expressed, with highest expression levels in longissimus dorsi muscles, followed by heart, biceps femoris, liver, kidney, back fat, and lowest expression levels in spleen, brain, lymph, lung, stomach, and small and large intestines. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy assay demonstrated that the fusion protein, GFP-NICE-3, was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, including the plasma membrane.

The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running. In this study it was examined whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can retrieve the low running performance

of the LCR and impact mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control. Resveratrol regressed running performance in trained LCR (p smaller than 0.05). Surprisingly, exercise OSI-906 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor and resveratrol treatments significantly decreased pAMPK/AMPK, SIRT1, SIRT4, forkhead transcription factor 1 (FOXO1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) levels in these animals (p smaller than 0.05). Mitochondrial fusion protein, HSP78 and polynucleotide phosphorylase were significantly induced in LCR-trained, LCR-resveratrol treated, LCR-trained and resveratol treated groups compared to LCR-controls. The data indicate that the AMPK-SIRT1-NAMPT-FOXO1 axis could be important to the limited aerobic endurance capacity of low running capacity rats. Resveratrol supplementation was not beneficial in terms of aerobic endurance performance,

mitochondrial biogenesis, or quality control.”
“Short interfering SB525334 ribonucleic acids (siRNAs) offer a highly specific and selective form of therapy for diseases with a genetic component; however the poor pharmacokinetic properties of the molecule have impeded its development into a therapeutic for use in vivo. Several different approaches have been taken to develop a successful KU-55933 siRNA delivery system but these systems lack the flexibility for easy optimisation. Here, we propose a polymeric nanoparticle (PNP) system consisting of two amphiphilic diblock copolymers which allow for the rapid determination of structure-activity relationships involving gene

knockdown and toxicity. The diblock copolymers self-assemble into monodisperse micelles of defined hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 30 to 100 nm dependent on the copolymer ratio. A luciferase-based high throughput assay varying PNP composition, concentration and siRNA concentration allowed the rapid identification of efficient PNP formulations for adherent and suspension cell lines. Optimised PNPs efficiently knocked down a fusion oncogene in hard to transfect human leukaemic cells raising the possibility of targeting malignant cells in a cancer-specific fashion. This approach allows the optimum PNP formulation to be identified for different cell types and conditions. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Important perceptual judgments are often made by combining the opinions of several individuals to make a collective decision, such as when teams of physicians make diagnoses based on medical images.