1 Bq kg− 1 d w ) was only slightly higher than the value found in

1 Bq kg− 1 d.w.) was only slightly higher than the value found in the core surface sediment, whereas the 214Bi activity concentration was identical. Moreover, the activities of 137Cs in both materials were also very similar, indicating that both the isotopic and the in situ methods yield comparable results. The rate of sediment deposition calculated from sediment trap measurements (1.67 mm year− 1) is comparable with the rate established by the Ku-0059436 isotopic method (1.61 mm year− 1). This results from the fact that the trapped sediment cannot be redeposited, which is contrary to natural

conditions, where strong hydrodynamic regimes can give rise to seabed erosion. “
“Coastal oceanic environments are sites of dynamic physical and biogeochemical processes. Over the last few decades, eutrophication-related algal bloom events have been on the rise in coastal areas. Such events alter the colour of the water as a result of selleck inhibitor the transient proliferation of phytoplankton. The absorption of light by phytoplankton is a major factor contributing to the optical variability of waters both in coastal regions and the open ocean. The shape and magnitude of the phytoplankton absorption spectrum reflect the pigment composition and its concentration in the water. Factors contributing to the

variability in a*ph(λ) include pigment packaging ( Duysens 1956) and concentrations of non-photosynthetic pigments ( Allali et al., 1997 and Vijayan et al., 2009). The latter contribute significantly to absorption

in the 460–640 nm region of the photosynthetically active radiation (Bidigare 1989b), particularly in coastal waters ( Bricaud et al., 1995 and Cleveland, 1995). The study area, Manila Bay, is a highly eutrophic coastal water body located between latitudes 14°23′ –14°87′N and longitudes 120°53′–121°03′E and is reported to be a pollution hot spot in East Asia (Maria et al. 2009). There have been many reports of the repeated occurrence of algal bloom events caused by Pyrodinium in the 1980s and 1990s ( Gonzales, 1989 and Furio and Gonzales, 2002); more recently, the blooming species changed to green Noctiluca ( Furuya et al. 2006). The bay is subject to multifarious biogeophysical conditions, which have created a complex biooptical Miconazole environment within the bay. Most of the studies conducted in Manila Bay have focused on the physico-chemical parameters ( Prudente et al., 1994, Velasquez and Jacinto, 1995, Velasquez et al., 1997 and Jacinto et al., 2011) and taxonomic aspects of phytoplankton ( Azanza and Miranda, 2001 and Siringan et al., 2008), algal photophysiology ( Hansen et al. 2004), modelling the physical characteristics of the environment ( De las Alas and Sodusta, 1985 and Fuji-ie et al., 2002), heavy metal pollution ( Hosono et al. 2010 and references therein) and the bloom dynamics of Pyrodinium ( Villanoy et al., 1996 and Villanoy et al., 2006). The bio-optical properties of seawater in Manila Bay are poorly documented.

The luminescent signal was detected using a compatible CCD imagin

The luminescent signal was detected using a compatible CCD imaging and analysis system measuring absorbance at 450 nm. The concentration of each sample was quantified by comparing the spot intensities with the corresponding standard curves calculated from the standard sample results using the SearchLight Array Analyst Software. Integrated density values were proportional FK228 concentration to the concentrations of bound proteins. Standard curves, raw data and final pg/ml concentrations for each analyte and each sample were reviewed in the array software and exported to Microsoft Excel Software for

further statistical analysis. Sample values were calculated from the standard curve in a linear range. All counts were based on individual sections and show the total number of neurons per slice. The number of microscopically detectable immunoreactive ChAT-positive neurons was counted in each whole slice and visualized under the 40 × objective by a blind observer. Multistatistical selleck screening library analysis (KaleidaGraph) was

obtained by one-way ANOVA with Fisher LSD post hoc test, comparing controls against respective treatments in which p < 0.05 represents statistical significance. We were interested in identifying the most efficient transfection method for generating NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. Each system was Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease optimized and evaluated for reproducibility and functional

gene expression (NGF secretion). Unfortunately, no NGF secretion was observed in primary monocytes transfected by electroporation, Effectene or FuGene (even following extensive optimization) (Table 1). Note that Table 1 only displays NGF secretion under optimized conditions. Refer to Methods section for all transfection conditions tested. Although the transfection conditions tested within each method were not always equivalent (i.e. DNA concentration) to other methods tested, this was not the reason for different efficiencies between systems. DNA input was determined in accordance with the recommended method levels and thus different concentrations were needed to optimize each method. When primary rat monocytes were transfected using nucleofection, monocytes secreted 0.8 ± 0.2 ng/ml NGF per 24 h per 1 million cells under optimized conditions (determined after many attempts at varying transfection conditions, see Table 1). Approximately 10–30% of nucleofected monocytes were transfected with the pmaxGFP vector (data not shown). However, monocyte nucleofection reproducibility was low (21%). Cell viability was also relatively low in nucleofected cells, where approximately 89% were annexin-V-positive and approximately 51% PI-positive (Fig. 1D–F). Although many attempts were made to enhance reproducibility and determine the factors responsible (i.e.

A second equation is provided for the flow metrics which are bett

A second equation is provided for the flow metrics which are better predicted with an additional explanatory variable related to land cover. Except the Q0.95 model whose predictive power is greatly improved by the inclusion of paddy area as an explanatory variable, R-squared learn more increments for the other models are modest. It should

be noted that the predictive power of all models may reduce if they are applied to catchments with characteristics outside the range of values reported in Table 2. Drainage directions, soil characteristics, longitude and wetland areas were found not to have significant explanatory power for any of the flow metrics. These exclusions do not necessarily mean that the mentioned variables have no effect on the catchments’ hydrological behavior. For instance, the hydrological effects of soils and wetlands are complex and depend on various context-specific situations (Ribolzi et al., 2011 and Acreman this website and Holden,

2013) which may not be reflected by the available metrics that we used. In addition, it should be noted that the surface area of wetlands never exceeds 1.23% of the catchment areas, for the catchments used in the analyses. This likely explains their negligible role in hydrological responses. Annual rainfall is an explanatory variable in all models with associated coefficients exhibiting the lowest variability between models (variation coefficient < 10%). Values are much greater than unity (average = 2.59) indicating that an increase

of x% in annual rainfall would induce an >x% increase in any of the studied flow metrics. The rainfall coefficient associated to the model predicting mean annual flow (β1 = 2.543) corresponds to the rainfall elasticity of streamflow. It is greater than Interleukin-2 receptor the value 1.99 obtained by Hapuarachchi et al. (2008) for the whole Mekong Basin. These elasticity coefficients can help assess the impact of projected changes in rainfall on future changes in the studied streamflow metrics. The drainage area is an explanatory variable for mean annual flow and high-flow variables (Max, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 and Mean). The coefficients for this variable are slightly lower than 1, depicting a slight tendency for reduction in runoff depth as catchment size increases. This is in agreement with Pilgrim et al. (1982) who observed a tendency of increased seepage in larger catchments. In contrast, low-flow variables (0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, 0.95 and Min) are better explained by the catchment perimeter rather than the catchment area. The perimeter provides information related to the shape of the catchment. For a given catchment area, a greater perimeter implies a longer time for water to reach the catchment outlet, thus explaining the positive correlation with low flow variables.

More in-depth understanding and recognition of the important role

More in-depth understanding and recognition of the important role of the innate immune response in regulating the induction of an adaptive response has led to a reappraisal of the role that adjuvants can play in vaccinology and is enabling vaccine researchers to use adjuvants to greater advantage. Development of novel adjuvants and adjuvant combinations is likely to help to address the challenges in modern vaccinology, such as vaccines targeting complex

pathogens (see Chapter 3 – Vaccine antigens) selleck screening library or vaccines for immunologically challenged subjects. In addition to their role in prophylactic vaccines, current and future adjuvants are likely to play a prominent role as immunotherapeutics, especially for cancer therapy. The box, right, summarises the challenges of complex diseases and find more the needs of specific populations

and how adjuvants can help to address them. How adjuvants can help to address vaccination challenges Complex diseases – AS01-adjuvanted RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine: immune response including strong humoral and T-cell responses together with clinical efficacy represents the first evidence that a vaccine against a parasite is feasible “
“Key concepts ■ Vaccine development is a complex multistep process Vaccine development is a complex and lengthy process that has evolved and expanded especially over the last few decades. Early on, the focus of the vaccine development process was the immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccines, which were generally developed for diseases with significant burdens of morbidity; often with high mortality as well. As once-prevalent deadly diseases have become uncommon, or even eliminated, the focus of vaccine development has shifted to place even greater emphasis on benefit–risk profiles, with increased attention paid to the safety of vaccines. Moreover, the general public has become increasingly sensitive to potential safety issues of vaccines, as it no longer fears the diseases for which

the vaccines were developed. As a consequence, the need to demonstrate vaccine safety requires more investigations today than was necessary in the past. This need is reflected in more comprehensive regulatory and licensing procedures aiming to ensure that a new vaccine has a benefit–risk Obeticholic Acid nmr profile where the benefits are many times greater than the risks. Economic considerations also play an increasing role in vaccine implementation. The older vaccines could be introduced to market primarily based upon mortality reduction arguments; however, nowadays there is a shift towards economic argumentation where the implementation of a new vaccine depends upon the perceived value of the programme outweighing the cost. It was the introduction of the first conjugate pneumococcal vaccine that heralded economic evaluation of vaccines.

Several thermophilic enzymes show indeed a remarkable stability a

Several thermophilic enzymes show indeed a remarkable stability at high temperatures, while others are unstable in pure preparations and obviously need the stabilizing capacity of cellular components. Tests at high temperatures are more complicated, not only due to more difficult thermostatting. Other components of the

assay mixture may become unstable and oxidation processes are accelerated. Besides the enzyme itself, substrates, co-substrates and cofactors5 are GSK126 price the most important components of the enzyme assay. Their state, their purity and stability is of particular importance and highest demands have to be made for these substances. With respect to the substrates a significant aspect must be considered. Usually it is taken that the enzyme has a defined substrate according to its physiological function, this website as lactate dehydrogenase oxidizing lactate to pyruvate, or fumarase forming malate from fumarate. However, the substrate is not clearly defined in every case. Many enzymes show broad specificity, accepting also substances structurally related to the physiological substrate, like alcohol dehydrogenase, which reacts with various alcohols. The same holds for cofactors. Divalent cations are essential cofactors for many catalytic reactions

and they can often be substituted by other divalent cations. An interesting example is glucose isomerase, a microbial enzyme. Its physiological substrate is xylose, which becomes isomerized to xylulose with Mn2+ acting as essential cofactor. Due to its capacity to isomerize also glucose to the more valuable sugar fructose, the enzyme gained great interest in biotechnology. This non-physiological reaction proceeds more efficient with Co2+ than with Mn2+. So the change of the substrate causes also a change of the cofactor (Antrim et al., 1979 and Lehmacher and Bisswanger, 1990). In other cases the physiological substrate RVX-208 is replaced by an artificial, synthetic substrate, e.g. if the physiological substrate is unstable or, as in the case

of proteases, if the (protein) substrate is not well defined, rather the single peptide bond within the protein must be regarded as the genuine substrate. If the enzyme accepts different substrates, the question arises which substrate should be used for the enzyme assay? Due to the varying catalytic efficiency, results obtained for the same enzyme, but with different substrates, will hardly be comparable. The efficiency of a substrate is determined by its Km value, the lower this value the better the substrate. Usually the most efficient substrate may be taken, but also other aspects must be considered, like the availability, stability, solubility and the accessibility to a detection method. Sometimes natural substrates are modified to facilitate the detection. So it is not always the physiological substrate which is applied for the enzyme assay, but it is obvious that for comparison of the results the same substrate must always be used.

By comparison, CXCL12-β and, to a greater extent, -γ have reduced

By comparison, CXCL12-β and, to a greater extent, -γ have reduced binding affinities for receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7. Biochemical KU-60019 molecular weight differences in binding to receptors and extracellular matrix molecules translate

to different functional outcomes. In mouse models, CXCL12-γ promotes chemotaxis of immune cells and endothelial progenitors to a significantly greater extent than other isoforms [53] and [54]. Greater binding to heparan sulfates and extracellular matrix molecules also limits proteolytic degradation of CXCL12 [55]. These studies highlight functional differences among CXCL12 isoforms in receptor binding, chemotaxis, and stability that could alter outcomes in breast cancer. Our data also support further studies analyzing functional differences among CXCL12 isoforms, especially for CXCL12-δ. Correlation between gene transcript data and protein expression is dependent on the gene and tissue type. However, mRNA expression is generally a good proxy for protein expression and is frequently used as biomarkers.[56], [57] and [58] Gene expression also forms the basis of the PAM50 molecular subtyping of breast cancer as well as Oncotype Dx, a widely used predictive model for chemotherapy

response in breast cancer.[59], [60], [61] and [62] Specifically for CXCL12-α, -β, and -γ, mRNA levels as measured by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction correlate with protein levels as measured by ELISA.[63] Z-VAD-FMK price We also recognize that this study has limitations based on the data publicly available through the TCGA. While the data set contains transcript data for a large number of patients, the median follow-up time is relatively short, and therefore, the number of metastasis and recurrence events is small, thus limiting our statistical power. This likely accounts for why the P values for CXCL12-δ MFS and RFS do not reach significance.

We also do not know the full treatment history for all patients, such as exact chemotherapy and radiation regimens, and there is likely significant heterogeneity in treatments given the multi-institutional nature of the data. Even with these limitations, we were able to identify significant differences in outcomes for isoforms of CXCL12. Metalloexopeptidase In summary, our data reveal new associations of CXCL12, CXCR4, and CXCR7 gene expression with molecular, histologic, and clinical categories of human breast cancer. In addition, we have identified isoform-specific differences in CXCL12 for outcomes in breast cancer, suggesting distinct biochemical functions of isoforms in disease progression. These compelling results establish the foundation for mechanistic preclinical studies of these isoforms in breast cancer. Additional studies are also warranted to elucidate the biologic and functional differences between the CXCL12 isoforms and validate them as potential biomarkers. The following are the supplementary data related to this article.

The study was approved by the regional ethical committee, and adh

The study was approved by the regional ethical committee, and adhered to the Helsinki Convention. Fifteen healthy female volunteers without MRI contraindications and no history of neurological or psychiatric disease provided written informed consent. One participant was excluded due to technical errors. All remaining subjects were right-handed; laterality index of 80.2 ± 12.5 (Oldfield, 1971). Each participant completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) which is based on the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Torrubia, Avila, Molto, & Caseras, 2001).

SPSRQ measures sensitivity to reward (SR), i.e., BAS reactivity, and sensitivity to punishment (SP), a combined measure of FFFS and BIS reactivity. The Joint Subsystems Hypothesis was not PD-166866 manufacturer formulated specifically to expect differential impacts of BIS and FFFS on BAS (Corr, 2001 and Corr, 2004). Since FFFS and BIS serve different adaptive purposes, it is important to investigate the STA-9090 mw unique contributions from each system. However, there was no validated Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory derived measure separating BIS and FFFS, and we thus decided to apply neuroticism (N) from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) as a supplement to SP. A priori, SP should lie closer to FFFS and N closer to BIS because

SP places a stronger emphasis on fear related avoidance compared to N which emphasizes anxious rumination. Adjusted BAS reactivity measures, SR+/SP− (BAS-SP scores) and SR+/N− (BAS-N scores) were calculated and subsequently used to test if the Joint Subsystems Hypothesis is a more sensitive measure of activation of dopaminergic innervated brain structures than the original Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory. A priming task based on a Posner task (Avila & Parcet, 2002) was adapted for event-related fMRI and compiled in E-Prime

(Psychology Software Tools, Pittsburgh, USA). The task stimuli consisted of cue-primes, i.e., two small hatches pointing left or right (<< or >>), neutral primes, i.e., two small hatches during pointing to the center (><), and target stimuli, i.e., one larger hatch pointing left or right (< or >). A trial was defined as valid if the target was preceded by a cue-prime pointing in the same direction as the target, invalid if preceded by a cue-prime pointing in the opposite direction, and neutral if preceded by a neutral prime. Each prime was displayed for 50 ms followed by a blank screen for 450 ms before the target presentation. This constituted a stimulus onset asynchrony of 500 ms, which is adequate for exploring reward sensitivity (Avila & Parcet, 2002). The target was displayed for 500 ms, followed by a 2600 ms rest period plus null-events of different lengths (1800, 3600, 5400 and 7400 ms).

All mousses might receive the “source”

or “good source” c

All mousses might receive the “source”

or “good source” claims for dietary fibre according to the E.U., the U.S., and the current Brazilian legislations and the standards proposed to be implemented in Brazil (Table 3 and Table 7). Only mousses with the addition PARP inhibitor of inulin (I, MF–I, I–WPC, and MF–I–WPC) fulfilled the requisites for a “high” claim for dietary fibre when confronted with all regulatory standards consulted. Mousses MF, WPC, and MF–WPC were unable to achieve the conditions for receiving the “high” claim for this nutrient according to the E.U. legislation and the current Brazilian standards. Considering the serving portion of ½ cup (120 g) and the DRV of 25 g for dietary fibre, TDF of formulations ranged from 7.06 g for mousse MF–WPC to 11.81 g for mousse I (data not shown), achieving more than 20% of the DRV for this nutrient. Therefore, this serving portion allowed that mousses not containing inulin might receive the “high” claim Galunisertib order according to the U.S. standards and those proposed to be updated in Brazil, which showed to be less restrictive, in this case, for products with “borderline TDF amounts”. Regarding the comparative claims “increased” or “enriched”, only

mousse I filled all requisites to receive the “increased” claim for dietary fibre content in comparison to control MF according to the Brazilian and the U.S. legislations (Table 3, Table 6 and Table 7). However, according to the E.U. legislation and the standards proposed to be adopted in Brazil, mousses I, MF–I, and I–WPC, might receive the “enriched” claim (Table 3, Table 6 and Table 7), indicating that these requirements for the comparative claim for

dietary fibre tend to be more flexible or less restrictive for the products studied Anidulafungin (LY303366) than those currently adopted in Brazil and from the U.S. According to the results of this study, depending on the legislation applied, there are more difficulties in attending the requisites for assigning a nutrient claim (for e.g., the comparative claims for energy and protein, and for the new Brazilian proposal for the standard related to the absolute content of trans-FA). It will not be at all surprising if the food industry forces a claim for energy and fat composition through the reduction of the serving portion sizes, leading to a misinformation to the consumers. This kind of situation should be more carefully inspected by the regulatory agencies.

A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and sciatic neur

A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and sciatic neurectomy was only detected for medullary area. The post-hoc analysis showed that female Lrp5HBM+ mice experienced less endocortical expansion than female WTHBM− mice (medullary area:

6.3 ± 3.8% vs. 16.4 ± 2.2% respectively, p < 0.05), no other differences were detected between male Lrp5HBM+ and their WTHBM− littermates or between male and female Lrp5−/− mice and their WT+/+ littermates. In cancellous bone, gender had a significant effect on the magnitude of sciatic neurectomy-induced change in Tb.Th and Tb.N, but not BV/TV or Tb.Sp, with male mice losing slightly more Tb.Th (− 20.2% vs. − 16.7%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown) and females losing more Tb.N (− 24.9% vs. − 22.9%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown). Genotype also had a significant effect on R428 manufacturer the magnitude of loss on all parameters of cancellous bone. Lrp5HBM+ mice experienced less loss in BV/TV than their WTHBM− littermates (− 17.2% vs. − 43.3%, respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown). This could be attributed to a reduced loss in Tb.Th and Tb.N. In contrast, Lrp5−/− mice showed a greater loss in BV/TV than their WT+/+ littermates (− 52.4% vs. − 41.3% respectively, p < 0.05, data not shown) due to a greater reduction in Tb.N and increase in Tb.Sp. A three-way interaction between gender, genotype and PR-171 supplier sciatic neurectomy was not detected for any of the cancellous

bone parameters; therefore bone loss was similar in male and female mice within each genotype. The trabecular architecture in the control and sciatic neurectomised limbs of the eight groups of mice are illustrated in Fig. 2. In summary these findings show that the degree of cortical and cancellous bone loss associated with sciatic neurectomy is affected by Lrp5 status.

The presence of the Lrp5 HBM mutation is associated with less loss in cortical and cancellous bone than in their WTHBM− controls. The lack of difference in cortical bone loss with disuse between Lrp5−/− mice and their WT+/+ controls indicates that normal Lrp5 function has no effect on this process. However, in cancellous bone absence of Lrp5 is associated with a greater decrease in Tb.N and increase in Tb.Sp than in WT+/+ controls. Mechanical loading significantly and dose-responsively Ixazomib increased the cortical bone parameters, % cortical bone area and % total area in WT+/+ males, but Lrp5−/− males showed a complete absence of cortical bone responses ( Table 2, Fig. 3). Female WT+/+ mice failed to respond dose-responsively to loading for cortical bone parameters ( Table 3), but some of the individual load groups produced significant side-to-side loading effects for cortical variables ( Table 2). Like their WT counterparts, Lrp5−/− females showed no dose–response to loading in cortical parameters, but significant side-to-side loading effects for some cortical bone parameters were found ( Table 2 Fig. 3).

8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer)  2 3 CLINICAL STAGE

8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer).  2.3 CLINICAL STAGE IIA   2.3.1 Anatomical surgical resection with lobectomy or pneumonectomy and mediastinal lymph node sampling (EL-1) or dissection (EL-3).   2.3.2 Offer adjuvant therapy as per 2.2.3 (EL-1).   2.3.3 PD-0332991 price If optimal surgery cannot be performed, consider limited surgery (wedge resection or segmentectomy) (EL-1).   2.3.4 For positive surgical margins perform re-resection (EL-1) and if not possible, offer curative radiotherapy (EL-2).   2.3.5 If surgical resection is not possible, offer curative radiotherapy (EL-1).   2.3.6 Follow up and surveillance per Section 2.8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer).  2.4 CLINICAL STAGE IIB   2.4.1 Anatomical surgical resection

and mediastinal lymph node sampling (EL-1) or dissection (EL-3). find more   2.4.2 Offer adjuvant therapy similar to 2.2.3 (EL-1).   2.4.3 Superior sulcus tumors patients should be induced by cisplatin/etoposide with concurrent radiation therapy followed by surgical resection (EL-2). Assess disease extent by using MRI at baseline and pre-operative.   2.4.4 For T3 N0 M0 perform en-bloc resection (EL-1).   2.4.5 If optimal surgery cannot be performed, consider limited surgery (wedge resection or segmentectomy) (EL-1).   2.4.6 For positive surgical margins perform re-resection (EL-1) and if not possible, offer curative radiotherapy (EL-2).   2.4.7 If surgical resection is not possible, offer curative radiotherapy

(EL-1).   2.4.8 Follow up and surveillance per Section 2.8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer).  2.5 CLINICAL STAGE IIIA   2.5.1 For T3 N1 M0 perform en-bloc resection (EL-1).   2.5.2 For superior sulcus tumor, offer treatment similar to 2.4.3 (EL-2).   2.5.3 For N2 disease offer neoadjuvant concurrent chemo-radiotherapy

(EL-1) assess response. If resectable, offer surgery. For non-resectable tumors, continue with the appropriate treatment based on disease status.   2.5.4 If positive N2 disease discovered during surgery by frozen section abort surgery if pneumonectomy is required (EL-2).   2.5.5 Incidental pathological N2 disease, adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated (EL-1) radiotherapy can be considered (EL-3).   2.5.6 For T4 (2 nodules in ipsilateral separate lobes), offer pneumonectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. to   2.5.7 T4 (mediastinal involvement or main airway involvement), offer surgery if potentially curative, if not possible, offer definite concurrent chemoradiotherapy (2.5.1)   2.5.8 For non N2 stage IIIA, not specified above, offer surgical resection with adjuvant chemotherapy (EL-1). Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered (EL-3).   2.5.9 Follow up and surveillance per Section 2.8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer).  2.6 CLINICAL STAGE IIIB AND UNRESECTABLE IIIA   2.6.1 Offer concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (EL1) followed by chemotherapy (EL2). Surgical resection for selected cases can be offered.   2.6.2 Follow up and surveillance per Section 2.8 (follow up of non small cell lung cancer).