J Clin Pathol 2006, 59:77–82 PubMedCrossRef 7 Saad RS, Lindner J

J Clin Pathol 2006, 59:77–82.PubMedCrossRef 7. Saad RS, Lindner JL, Liu Y, Silverman JF: Lymphangiogenesis

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: Intensive sequential dose

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Bengala C, Champion K, Kimmig R, et al.: Phase III trial of high-dose sequential chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell support compared with standard dose chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: https://www.selleckchem.com/products/idasanutlin-rg-7388.html intergroup trial of the AGO-Ovar/AIO and EBMT. J Clin Oncol 2007, 25:4187–4193.PubMedCrossRef 21. Bertucci F, Tarpin C, Charafe-Jauffret E, Bardou VJ, Braud AC, Tallet A, et al.: Multivariate analysis of survival in inflammatory breast cancer: impact of intensity of chemotherapy in multimodality treatment. Bone Marrow Transplant 2004,

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stem cell transplantation in first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Bone Marrow Transplant 2008, 41:555–562.PubMedCrossRef 25. Berry DA, Ueno NT, Johnson MM, Lei X, Caputo J, Rodenhuis S, et al.: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell support as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer: overview of 15 randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 2011, 29:3214–3223.PubMedCrossRef 26. Hartmann JT, Gauler T, Metzner B, Gerl A, Casper J, Rick O, et al.: Phase I/II study of sequential dose-intensified https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ew-7197.html ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide plus paclitaxel as induction chemotherapy for poor prognosis germ cell tumors by the German testicular cancer study group. J Clin Oncol 2007, 25:742–5747. 27. Gonçalves A, Delva R, Fabbro M, Gladieff L, Lotz JP, Ferrero JM, et al.: Post-operative sequential high-dose chemotherapy with haematopoietic stem cell support as front-line treatment in advanced ovarian cancer: a phase II multicentre study. Bone Marrow Transplant 2006, 37:651–659.PubMedCrossRef 28.

Am J Infect Control 1999, 27(2):97–132 PubMedCrossRef 2 Percival

Am J Infect Control 1999, 27(2):97–132.PubMedCrossRef 2. Percival SL, Hill KE, Malic S, Thomas DW, Williams DW: Antimicrobial tolerance and the significance of persister cells in recalcitrant chronic wound biofilms. Wound Repair Regen 2011, 19(1):1–9.PubMedCrossRef 3. Stewart PS, Costerton JW: Antibiotic resistance

of bacteria in biofilms. Lancet 2001, 358:135–138.PubMedCrossRef 4. Hoyle BD, Costerton JW: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: the role of biofilms. Prog Drug Res 1991, 37:91–105.PubMed 5. Phillips CB, Barrett JA, Losina E, Mahomed NN, Lingard EA, Guadagnoli E, Baron JA, Harris WH, Poss R, Katz JN: click here Incidence rates of dislocation, pulmonary embolism, and deep infection during the first six months after elective total hip replacement. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2003, 85-A(1):20–26.PubMed 6. Spangehl MJ, Masri BA, O’Connell JX, Duncan CP: Prospective analysis of preoperative and intraoperative

investigations for the diagnosis of infection at the sites of two hundred and two revision total hip arthroplasties. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999, 81(5):672–683.PubMed 7. Wymenga AB, van Horn JR, Theeuwes A, Muytjens HL, Slooff TJ: Perioperative factors associated with septic arthritis after arthroplasty. Prospective multicenter study of 362 knee and 2651 hip operations. Acta Orthop Scand 1992, 63(6):665–671.PubMed 8. Bozic KJ, Kurtz SM, Lau E, Ong K, Vail TP, Berry DJ: Selleck Entinostat The epidemiology of revision total hip arthroplasty in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009, 91(1):128–133.PubMedCrossRef 9. Bozic KJ, Kurtz SM, Lau E, Ong K, Chiu V, Vail TP, Rubash HE, Berry DJ: The epidemiology of revision total knee arthroplasty in the

United States. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2010, 468(1):45–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral 10. Chu VH, Crosslin DR, Friedman JY, Reed SD, Cabell CH, Griffiths RI, Masselink LE, Kaye KS, Corey GR, Reller LB, Stryjewski ME, Schulman KA, Fowler VG Jr: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with prosthetic devices: costs and outcomes. Am J Med 2005, 118(12):1416.PubMedCrossRef 11. GSK1904529A supplier Tsukayama DT, Estrada R, Gustilo RB: Infection after total hip arthroplasty. A study of the treatment of one hundred and six infections. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996, 78(4):512–523.PubMed 12. Zimmerli W, Ochsner PE: Management of infection associated with prosthetic joints. Infection 2003, 31(2):99–108.PubMedCrossRef PLEK2 13. Mack D, Davies AP, Harris LG, Rohde H, Horstkotte MA, Knobloch JK: Microbial interactions in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007, 387:399–408.PubMedCrossRef 14. Götz F: Staphylococcus and biofilms. Mol Microbiol 2002, 43(6):1367–1378.PubMedCrossRef 15. Hori K, Matsumoto S: Bacterialadhesion: From mechanism to control. Biochem Eng J 2010, 48(3):424–434.CrossRef 16. An YH, Friedman RJ: Concise review of mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res 1998, 43(3):338–348.PubMedCrossRef 17.

The lexA and recA genes were amplified by PCR from the chromosoma

The lexA and recA genes were amplified by PCR from the chromosomal DNA using specific primers (DinR_U 5′-GCGCGGATCCAGTGATGTTATGTATTTAGATC-3′ – DinR_D 5′-CGCACGCGTCTATTTAATAACTCTAAATAC-3′) and (RecA_U 5′-GCGCGGATCCAGTGTAGATCAAGAAAAATTAAAAG-3′ – RecA_D 5′-CGCACGCGTTTATTCTTCTACAATTTCTTTTG-3′), respectively. The PCR products were then purified and cut with BamHI and MluI and cloned into pET8c vector digested by the same enzyme to create plasmids pDinRCD and pRecACD for expression of proteins fusion with N-terminal His6 Doramapimod in vivo tag. Large-scale expression of proteins was performed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified from the bacterial cytoplasm by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography

as described for the E. coli key SOS proteins [25]. PD10 desalting columns (GE Healthcare) were used for Selleckchem TPX-0005 exchange of the buffer. The proteins were stored at −80°C in 20 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7.4),

0.2 mM NaCl. Epigenetics inhibitor Protein concentrations were determined using NanoDrop1000 (Thermo Scientific) and extinction coefficients at 280 nm of 7450 M−1 cm−1 for recombinant LexA and 16055 M−1 cm−1 for recombinant RecA. Surface plasmon resonance assays C. difficile LexA-operator measurements were performed on a Biacore T100 (GE Healthcare) at 25°C as described [6]. The 3′-biotynilated 5-CGCTCGAGTAGTAAC-TEG-Bio-3′primer was immobilized on the flow cell 2 (Fc2) of the streptavidin sensor chip (GE Healthcare) in SPR buffer containing 20 mM Tris–HCl (pH 7.4), 140 mM NaCl, 0.005% surfactant P20 (GE Healthcare). To prepare double stranded

DNA (dsDNA) fragments with the predicted C. difficile LexA operators, complementary pairs of primers presented in Additional file 3: Table S2 were dissolved in 20 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7.4), 0.14 M NaCl and mixed in 1:1.5 (mol : mol) ratio for the longer to shorter primer, respectively. Primers were annealed in temperature gradient from 95°C to 4°C (~ 1.5 h) in PCR machine (Eppendorf). So prepared DNA fragments were approximately 22 bp duplex DNAs with 15-nucleotide overhangs complementary to the chip-immobilized primer. Approximately 44 response units of either DNA fragment were hybridised Selleckchem Gefitinib at 2 μl min−1 to the Fc2. The interaction of C. difficile LexA with the chip-immobilized DNAs was analysed by injecting repressor in SPR buffer in 20 nM concentration across the chip surface at 100 μl min−1 for a minute and dissociation was followed for 9 minutes. The regeneration of the surface was achieved injecting 12 s pulse of 50 mM NaOH at 100 μl min−1. The experiments were performed in triplicates and the representative sensorgrams are shown. Data were fitted to a 1:1 binding model to obtain the dissociation rates constants. Program MEME was used to determine LexA binding motifs [33]. SPR C. difficile RecA*-LexA interaction measurements were performed on a Biacore X (GE Healthcare) at 25°C as described to study the interaction among the key E. coli SOS proteins [25]. Experiments were performed in SPR_2 buffer (20 mM NaH2PO4 (pH 7.

In the United States, analysis of strains from Texas, California,

In the United States, analysis of strains from Texas, California, and Colorado reported 25% containing fewer than six IS6110 copies [41]. The reports of the incidence of strains with low copy number insertions from the United States are closer to the incidence of Aurora Kinase inhibitor the Mexican strains isolated in our work. In this study, 48

MTb strains produced 21 spoligotyping patterns, while 9 M. bovis produced just 7 patterns. Quitugua et al [42] had reported the spoligotype 777776777760601 (ST137) in 63 patients from Texas, this pattern was identified in 2 strains in our study. Palbociclib ic50 Likewise, the octal 777776777760771 (ST119) which was identified in 89 patients who live on the border of Mexico (Tamaulipas) and United States (Texas), was identified in 3 strains in this study. Other octals found by Quitugua et al and also in our work, were 777777777760771 (ST53) and 777777607760771 (ST42), confirming that there are some strains of MTb circulating between Mexico and United States. The spoligotypes ST42, ST47, ST50 and ST53 identified in this study, have been found in others countries including Brazil, South Africa and Poland [43–45], suggesting that these strains might be circulating worldwide. Furthermore, the ST53 spoligotype has also been isolated from Egyptian

mummies [46]; this spoligotype is one of the most common patterns and, according to a hypothesis about the evolution of MTb strains by loss of DRs [47], close to the origin of development of mycobacterial diversity. The ST683 spoligotype found in M. bovis strains check details isolated in this study

has also been found in cattle from Juarez City and Chihuahua (Mexico) [48] and has been frequently isolated from cattle in Australia, Argentina, England, France and Ireland [49–53]. The pattern of transmission of M. bovis to HIV-infected patients is still under study; however, the identification of the same spoligotype patterns in both cattle and HIV-infected patients indicates ADP ribosylation factor that, as is generally accepted, ingestion of contaminated milk or dairy products is the most probable origin of infection [31]. This study is the first in Mexico where genetic diversity of mycobacterial strains has been evaluated using MIRU-VNTR. The 48 MTb strains investigated in this report produced 40 distinct patterns by MIRU-VNTR while 9 M. bovis strains produced 7. Analysis of these results showed that most of these patterns were unique, consistent with other studies conducted in Singapore and Belgium, where there was wide variability in MTb strains [54, 55]. As expected, most of clusters based on spoligotyping or low IS6110 copy number fingerprinting could be distinguished by MIRU-VNTR. Additionally, in strains isolated from HIV-infected patients, 4 MIRU (4, 20, 23 and 31) were showed to have a different pattern compared with those occurring in the population without HIV; MIRU 4 and 31 in strains isolated from HIV-infected patients presented with low polymorphism, while those identified from individuals without HIV have a high polymorphism.

The therapeutic potential of induction or suppression of autophag

The therapeutic potential of induction or suppression of autophagy in cancer treatment undoubtably depends on understanding the role of autophagy in cancer cells. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an effective mitotic inhibitor and apoptosis inducer. It has been widely used in chemotherapy for lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and Kaposi’s sarcoma

[6]. It has been shown that in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells, while paclitaxel treatment leads to apoptosis, paclitaxel also induces an Cilengitide chemical structure autophagic response that plays a protective role impeding the eventual cell death [7]. While some recent studies demonstrated that paclitaxel treatment led to increased autophagy in lung cancer cells and osteosarcoma cells, and inhibition of autophagy increased the learn more cytotoxic sensitivity of cells to paclitaxel [7, 8], Veldhoen

et al. reported that paclitaxel could inhibit autophagy in breast cancer cells by blocking activation of the class III phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase, Vps34, and autophagy sensitized cells to paclitaxel toxicity [9]. These conflicting results suggested that the treatment effects of paclitaxel on autophagy might be cell-type dependent. Recently, it has been demonstrated that paclitaxel exhibits Olaparib mouse preferential toxicity to folliculin (FLCN)-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) line, UOK257, a cell line which originated from a patient with Birt–Hogg–Dube (BHD) syndrome [10]. BHD syndrome, caused by FLCN mutations, is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by susceptibility to renal cancer, MG-132 price renal and pulmonary cysts, and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles [11]. Function of FLCN has been linked to mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways [12, 13]. In addition, FLCN was reported to be involved in apoptosis [12,

14–16]. Furthermore, FLCN was recently found to be associated with the activity of LC3-mediated autophagic program [17]. These findings might provide new insights into the treatment of BHD disease. While early-stage bilateral renal cancer associated with BHD disease could be managed with partial nephrectomy, an effective cure for BHD disease associated renal cancer has not been established. The preferential toxicity of paclitaxel to UOK257 FLCN-deficient cell line suggested that paclitaxel might be a candidate anticancer drug for FLCN-deficient tumors [10]. To further determine the cellular response of FLCN-deficient cell lines treated with paclitaxel, here we examined apoptosis and autophagy induced by paclitaxel in human renal cancer cell lines with or without FLCN expression. Our results indicated that autophagy induced by paclitaxel in FLCN-null renal cancer cells plays a protective role, and the inhibition of autophagy could increase apoptosis induced by paclitaxel treatment in these cancer cells.

The lipopolysaccharides of H pylori are important for host inter

The lipopolysaccharides of H. pylori are important for host interaction. H. pylori can express Lewis and related antigens in the O-chains of its surface lipopolysaccharide that mimic the hosts. O-chains are commonly composed of internal Lewis X units with terminal Lewis X or Lewis Y units or, in some strains, with additional units of Lewis a, Lewis b, Lewis c, sialyl-Lewis X and H-1 antigens, as well as blood groups A and AZD0156 concentration B, producing a mosaic of antigenic units [75]. The activity and specificity of the fucosyltransferases

may vary between the two paralogs in one strain, as well as between the orthologs in different strains [76]. Mechanism of these changes is phase variation involving simple repeats and longer repeats [77, 78]. Such diversity could be adaptive and related to differences in pathogenicity [79]. The two fucosyltransferase genes (futA = HP0379, futB = HP0651) showed large hpEurope-hspEAsia divergence (the 4th largest d a value), Baf-A1 as reported earlier [15]. Intra-hspEAsia divergence was large for them (in zone 3). HP1105 (agt) was β-1,3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase gene for LPS synthesis. Another transfereaseα-1,6-glucosyltransferase gene (HP0159 = rfaJ-1) was

in the list of 6 hspEAsia – 5 hpEurope comparison (Additional file 7 (= Table S5)). Transport Four genes in Table 6, sotB, secG, yajC, comH and cvpA, are related to motility and chemotaxis. The sotB gene was similar to genes for sugar MM-102 mw efflux transporters and multi-drug resistance transporters (COG2814, TIGR00880). SecG forms the machinery for protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane [80]. YajC is a member of the preprotein translocase machinery, SecDF-YajC. SecDF-YajC inhibits disulfide bond formation between two SecG molecules [81]. ComH is essential for natural transformation [82]. Thiamet G Its putative N-terminal secretion signal suggests that it is either anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane or exported to the periplasm [82]. The cvpA gene of E. coli is suggested to encode a membrane protein required for colicin V production/secretion

[83]. The secG homolog, mHP1255, showed divergence focused around residues 150-160. The nucleotide sequence AAAGAGAAG encoding Lys-Glu-Asn was present once in hpEurope and hspWAfrica strains whereas repeated 2 to 4 times in tandem in all hpEastAsia strains (4 in F16, 3 in Sat464, and 2 in the others). Positively-selected amino-acid changes of the putative sotB product were identified (Table 7). Of these, W186Y lay at the end of a transmembrane helical region away from the substrate tranlocation pores. Motility and chemotaxis Four genes in Table 6, fliT, fliK, maf and cheY, are related to motility and chemotaxis. The fliT product is a flagellar chaperone [84], whereas the fliK product controls the hook length of flagella [85].

For example, in theory, children who participate in sport require

For example, in theory, children who participate in sport require the highest levels of nutrition to meet the energy demands of their activities. Still, there are limited data that describe the association between sport participation and eating behaviours (including beverage consumption) in children. Although research that addresses this issue in children is limited, athletic adolescents appear to consume a healthier diet than their non-athletic RAD001 mouse counterparts [3–5]. Only one study on pre-adolescents [6] was found in the literature and it addressed physical activity rather

than sport, demonstrating that increased levels of physical activity in 8–10 year old African-American girls were associated with lower BMI, higher carbohydrate consumption

and lower fat intake. Within the diets of many children and youth, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to their excess weight gain [7]. SSBs include carbonated beverages as well as other beverages that GKT137831 contain added caloric sweeteners. Many of these drinks contain few nutrients and excess consumption can also lead to dental erosion and decay [8]. Sports drinks are a specific category of SSBs. Although sports drinks may be helpful in replenishing blood glucose levels during and following high-intensity exercise and maintaining hydration during prolonged exercise in hot environments [9], excessive consumption may increase the risk of children and adolescents becoming overweight or obese [10]. RO4929097 purchase There is limited evidence about the consumption of sports drinks by Niclosamide adolescents and specifically adolescent athletes. Importantly, to the best of our knowledge there are no published data that describe sports drink consumption in children nor specifically about children who participate in organized sport compared to those who do not. In light of the gaps in the literature and with 75% of Canadian children participating in organized

sport [11], the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sports participation and consumption of sports drinks, SSBs, fruits, vegetables, milk and macronutrients (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories) in children. Methods Study design A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study, a large cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity and healthy eating intervention (n = 1494). Specifically, the relationship between participation in sport and both eating behaviours (sports drink, SSB, milk, fruit and vegetable consumption) and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories) in n = 1421 grade 4 and 5 children (9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls and 685 boys) attending 30 schools across four regions of BC was examined. Baseline data were collected during the fall of 2005.

1, YP_001941631 1, YP_001941634 1, YP_001585641 1),

R li

1, YP_001941631.1, YP_001941634.1, YP_001585641.1),

R. litoralis (ZP_02142508.1), Pseudomonas sp.TS44 (ACB05952.1), C. phaeobacteroides (YP_001960746.1) and C. aggregans (YP_002461760.1). Remarkably, a multiple alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that AoxR shares significant homology with a number of σ54 RNA polymerase transcriptional activators, i.e. 35.96% identity with ZraR and 35.26% identity with AtoC from E. coli K12. AoxR contains three conserved domains shared by most Enhancer Binding Proteins (EBP), namely a N-terminal response regulator receiver domain (amino acids 18-130), a central σ54 interaction domain (amino acids 147-368) common to all σ54 dependent EBPs (Pfam E-value 10-116; http://​www.​sanger.​ac.​uk/​cgi-bin/​Pfam/​getacc?​PF00158) and a C-terminal DNA binding helix-turn-helix learn more Selleckchem Staurosporine (HTF) domain (amino acids 421-463) enable to bind to specific upstream activation sequences [20]. AoxR shares similarities with several EBPs of σ54 essential for the formation of an open complex formation during σ54-dependent transcriptional initiation, in particular the σ54 activator sequence GAFTGA loop 1 which directly binds to σ54 conserved selleck kinase inhibitor region III (Figure 6) [21]. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that AoxR interacts directly with RpoN to initiate the transcription of aoxAB operon in H. arsenicoxydans. Figure 6 Amino acids conservation between σ 54 Enhancer Binding Proteins (EBP) and AoxR. Sequence

alignment was performed with ClustalW. The conserved amino acids are presented with a blue background 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase and the blue intensity reflects sequence similarities.

Only the central binding domain is indicated. Region CI has remarkable similarity to the consensus glycine-rich flexible loop motif (Walker A – consensus motif GxxGxGK), and also contains hydrophobic residues. Region CII is hydrophobic. The region CIII is predicted to fold into two alpha helices separated by a turn. This region is involved in a specific interaction between the EBP and the Eσ54 required for open promoter complex formation via the GAFTGA motif. Region CIV is rich in glycine, negatively charged and contains a consensus sequence of 4 aliphatic residues followed by 2 negatively charged residues (Walker B – consensus motif TVFLDE); in contrast, CVI is positively charged and is rich in aromatic residues and proline. Region CV is found about 80 amino acids away from region CI, and has a consensus sequence QakLLRVLqe. Finally, region CVII has a core of eight highly conserved amino acids. Sequence informations of other genes were obtained from Colibri database (Institut Pasteur, Paris). Discussion Despite many works devoted to arsenic metabolism in microorganisms, little is known about the regulation of arsenite oxidase activity. In the present study, the combination of transcriptomic, genetic and molecular data provided a comprehensive view of the role of various proteins in the control of arsenite oxidation in H. arsenicoxydans (Figure 7).

The requirement of both rhl gene clusters for normal swarming mot

The requirement of both rhl gene clusters for normal swarming motility supports this model (see below). The presence of a transposase of the mutator family in close proximity of one of the gene clusters (BTH_II1082) can also be indicative that a past duplication of an original single copy occurred and positive selection throughout evolution of some bacterial lineages conserved the paralogs. Long chain MK-0518 supplier rhamnolipids from Burkholderia: effects on the CMC Considering

the length of the carbon chains of the fatty acid moiety click here of rhamnolipids produced by Burkholderia species, it was compelling to determine their effect on lowering the surface tension of water. A total rhamnolipid extract from B. thailandensis lowers the surface tension to 42 mN/m, with a CMC value of 225 mg/L. These values are higher than those traditionally reported for rhamnolipids produced by Pseudomonas species (typically around 30 mN/m and CMC

in the order of 20 to 200 mg/L) [36]; however, it is only recently that HAAs have been discovered, as well as their efficacious surface tension-lowering potential [16]. Thus, we assume that results pertaining to surface tension properties of Thiazovivin research buy rhamnolipids published prior to this report could have been biased by a contamination with easily co-purified HAAs. For the purpose of the present study, we compared our results with those we have published for purified rhamnolipids and HAAs produced by P. aeruginosa PG201 [16]. The purified rhamnolipids from this strain lower surface tension to 40 mN/m with a CMC value of approximately Rutecarpine 600 mg/L, while the HAA mixtures displays values of 29 mN/m with a CMC of approximately 800 mg/L. Consequently, it is clear that the longer chain rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis

start forming micelles at a much lower concentration than P. aeruginosa rhamnolipids, 225 mg/L versus 600 mg/L. These values can be compared as the rhamnolipid mixture from B. thailandensis used for our tests contained only traces of HAAs. The effect of alkyl ester chain length of sophorolipids, a class of biosurfactants produced by Candida bombicola, has been studied with regards to micellization. The study reported a direct effect of carbon chain length on decreasing the CMC. Additional CH2 groups render the molecule more hydrophobic and thus facilitate micelle formation [37]. This might explain the lower CMC value obtained with the longer chain rhamnolipids produced by B. thailandensis in comparison to those obtained by P. aeruginosa. Both rhlA alleles are necessary for normal swarming motility Swarming motility always involves biosurfactants. For example, serrawettin W2, a wetting agent produced by Serratia liquefaciens, is required for swarming motility in a nonflagellated mutant [38, 39]. In regards to P.