Conclusion: Oral tacrolimus is a safe and effective therapy for t

Conclusion: Oral tacrolimus is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of moderate to severe UC, although still more longer follow-up of patients and compilation of further clinical data will be necessary. Key Word(s): 1.

ulcerative colitis; 2. tacrolimus Presenting Author: MANABU SHIRAKI Additional Authors: Fluorouracil concentration TAKAYUKI YAMAMOTO, KOICHI MATSUMOTO Corresponding Author: MANABU SHIRAKI Affiliations: Yokkaichi Hazu Medical Cener, Yokkaichi Hazu Medical Cener Objective: It has been reported that CT can be used for the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease; nevertheless, there have been few reports on the efficacy of low dose CT for ulcerative colitis. We report here the efficacy of low dose CT for ulcerative colitis.

Methods: The patients with relapsing ulcerative colitis between https://www.selleckchem.com/products/cetuximab.html July 2013 and April 2014 were included in this study. All patients had undergone sigmoidoscopy and low dose CT scan. The colon CT image was divided into six segments, and then we evaluated wall thickening, stratification, contrast enhancement and mesenteric vascular engorgement, assigning a CT score to each segment. We calculated a total CT score by the sum of CT scores of 6 segments. To assess endoscopic severity, Ulcerative Colitis Colonoscopic Index of Severity (UCCIS) was used. The clinical severity was assessed by Mayo partial score. We investigated the correlation between those CT scores and UCCIS. The correlation between partial Mayo score and total CT score also investigated. Results: Twenty three cases of ulcerative colitis were included in this study. We achieved a 57% reduction of effective dose by adjusting the scan conditions and the reconstruction conditions (P = 0.00326). We observed a high degree of correlation between the sum of the CT scores of the rectum and sigmoid colon and the sum of the UCCIS of the rectum and sigmoid colon (ρ = 0.629). Although the UCCIS of the rectum and sigmoid colon segment calculated by sigmoidoscopy and partial Mayo scores correlate (ρ = 0.456, R2 = 0.267), the correlation analysis between the total CT score and the partial Mayo score indicated a higher coefficient of determination

(ρ = 0.643, R2 = 0.315). Conclusion: This study Parvulin suggested that low dose CT could provide more effective images to assess the disease activity of ulcerative colitis less invasively compared with sigmoidoscopy. Key Word(s): 1. low dose CT; 2. sigmoidsocpy; 3. ulcerative colitis Presenting Author: DAIMON SHIROSE Additional Authors: KOJI MATSUDA, DAISUKE SUENAGA, YUICHI KINOSHITA, DAISUKE KUMON, MIKIHITO HAYASHI, KAYO ADACHI, TOSHIYA ISHII, AKIRA SATO Corresponding Author: DAIMON SHIROSE Affiliations: St. Marianna Univ. Yokohama-City Seibu Hopsital, St. Marianna Univ. Yokohama-City Seibu Hopsital, St. Marianna Univ. Yokohama-City Seibu Hopsital, St. Marianna Univ. Yokohama-City Seibu Hopsital, St. Marianna Univ. Yokohama-City Seibu Hopsital, St. Marianna Univ.

(HEPATOLOGY 2010;52:1758-1768) Chronic cholestatic liver diseases

(HEPATOLOGY 2010;52:1758-1768) Chronic cholestatic liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are characterized by impaired biliary secretion of bile acids

and other potentially harmful cholephiles. Intrahepatic accumulation of endogenous hydrophobic bile acids, together with cytokine- and chemokine-mediated inflammatory bile ductular and liver parenchymal BMS 354825 injury, may contribute to development of fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic cholestatic disorders. The ratio of toxic to less toxic bile acids correlates with severity of liver injury.1 The hydrophilic C24 bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves biochemical and histological features in PBC, halts progression to cirrhosis in the majority of patients with PBC, Silmitasertib ic50 normalizes life expectancy in two-thirds of patients with PBC2-5 and currently represents the only approved therapy for PBC.6 In PSC, its therapeutic long-term benefit remains so far unclear although serum liver tests and surrogate markers of long-term prognosis improved during UDCA treatment in pilot trials.6 Mechanisms of action of UDCA in cholestatic disorders have not yet been fully resolved.7 Stimulation of impaired hepatocellular secretion by mainly

posttranscriptional mechanisms, detoxification of bile, antiapoptotic effects in hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and stimulation of cholangiocyte HCO secretion may contribute to the beneficial effect observed during UDCA treatment in cholestatic disorders.7 NorUDCA is a C23 homolog of UDCA. C23 bile acids are found only in trace amounts in human bile.8 They are poorly conjugated with taurine and glycine in liver, and their pharmacokinetic properties differ from their naturally occurring C24 homologs.8NorUDCA has recently been shown to exert therapeutic effects superior to those of UDCA in

multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2)/ATP-binding cassette b4 (Abcb4) knockout mice, a murine model of nonsuppurative, sclerosing cholangitis.9, 10 The mechanisms of action of norUDCA Selleckchem Ibrutinib in Mdr2−/− mice remain obscure.10NorUDCA is a potent (hyper-)choleretic bile acid as a result of cholehepatic shunting.8, 10 Whether this property may explain, at least in part, the anticholestatic, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects of norUDCA in Mdr2−/− mice9, 10 still remains unresolved. Most importantly, it is unclear whether norUDCA, like UDCA, may exert anticholestatic effects at the level of the hepatocyte.7, 11 Lithocholic acid conjugates are the most potent cholestatic agents among the major human bile acids.12 Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA)-induced cholestasis is an established experimental model of hepatocellular cholestasis.

In this line, in vitro neutralization of IL-10 in PBMC from HCV-i

In this line, in vitro neutralization of IL-10 in PBMC from HCV-infected patients recovered the activity of low-responsive T-cells.3, 31 Although the mechanism responsible for this recovery is not characterized, restoration of functional properties of DC and concomitantly of T-cells might explain these results. Thus, IL-10 inhibition in HCV infection might enhance T-cell immunity facilitating viral clearance. An important finding obtained using peptide inhibitors of IL-10 is that they not only inhibit IL-10

released in response to HCV proteins, but also IL-10 induced by maturation stimuli. Indeed, activation of mDC with CD40L in the presence of p9 enhanced IL-12 production. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting an endogenous brake, like IL-10, synthesized upon CD40L stimulation, may be useful to improve Selleckchem LY294002 the functional properties of DC. This buy Ibrutinib strategy may increase

the immunogenicity of DC, leading to higher efficacy of DC-based vaccination procedures. Using human MoDC (DC population commonly used in vaccination), we found that inhibition of endogenous IL-10 with p13 enhanced their immunogenicity in vitro, increasing lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production, the prototypical Th1 cytokine. Similar results were obtained with murine DC, in agreement with the ability of these peptides to bind and inhibit murine IL-10, which has more than 70% homology with hIL-10. More important, immunization with p13-treated DC in different antigenic models, including mice expressing a secretable version of HCV core as well as transgenic mice expressing the full HCV polyprotein, led to the induction of stronger anti-NS3 T-cell responses, measured as IFN-γ production. Thus, these peptides may have important applications in HCV infection not only in vivo, to inhibit IL-10, thus modulating immune responses, but also ex vivo, in clinical protocols based on the use of DC loaded with HCV antigens for further

administration in therapeutic vaccination. An interesting result regarding the activity of p13 and p9 is their selective effect on their ability ADAMTS5 to restore cytokine production by different DC populations. We do not have a clear explanation, but it might be speculated that these DC populations and their functions have a different sensitivity to be inhibited by IL-10. This might be related to differences in the site of binding to IL-10 by p9 and p13, resulting in specific effects on both types of DC populations. Similarly, binding of the anti-IL-10 antibody to another site on the cytokine may also explain differences in its effect. Finally, because IL-10 plays an immunosuppressive role32 in other diseases (infections by HBV, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], or cancer), we believe that these peptides might be also useful in these settings.

Acute UGIB is a serious medical problem in cirrhotic patients In

Acute UGIB is a serious medical problem in cirrhotic patients. In published literature, most reports focus on variceal bleeding while data on acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding in cirrhosis are limited. This has meant that many physicians over the years assume only variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Moreover, there are very few reports in which the characteristics of variceal and non-variceal bleeding are analyzed together. Despite the fact that variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication in cirrhosis with consistently high morbidity and mortality, non-variceal bleeding may also decompensate

cirrhotic patients and even may be fatal. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study in our endoscopy center in TUH to assess the magnitude of the problem as well as its different causes among

cirrhotic patients in the region of the middle of Nile Delta. Methods: In the period from March 2013 LDK378 to September 2013, a total of 650 patients underwent emergency upper GI endoscopy for acute UGIB in the endoscopy center in TUH. Out of these patients, 550 (84.6%) patients proved to have cirrhosis, who were the subject of the present study. All patients included in the selleck chemicals llc study were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, with special emphasis on stigmata of chronic liver disease, and emergency upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after initial assessment and resuscitation in the emergency department searching for the source of bleeding. A lesion was considered the source of bleeding, if there is stigmata of recent hemorrhage or if it’s the only lesion detected in the presence of fresh or altered blood in the upper GI tract. After identification of the bleeding lesion, the appropriate endoscopic hemostatic procedure was done to control bleeding whenever indicated. Endoscopic hemostasis was obtained by injection, thermal and mechanical

methods or combination of these modalities. The outcome of these modalities was not included in the present analysis. Different endoscopic findings were recorded & ratio of non-variceal in relation to the total number of cases was calculated. Results: Our results showed that UGIB in cirrhotic patients was much more common in males and patients from rural Unoprostone areas. Bleeding varices were detected in 75.5% while non-variceal sources of bleeding were detected in 24.5% of the patients. Regarding age, the bleeding variceal group was younger than the bleeding non-variceal group & the difference was statistically significant. Bleeding variceal group was more commonly presented with hemodynamic instability than the bleeding non-variceal group. 22% of the studied cirrhotic patients had negative viral markers while 78% had positive viral markers. 99.1% of patients with positive viral markers were HCV positive, (0.2%) were HBV positive and (0.7%) had mixed viral etiology. Within bleeding variceal patients, bleeding esophageal varices were predominant (90.

The first is on Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases

The first is on Mechanisms of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, the second is about Advances in Clinical Practice. The first review articles in these new series are both about irritable bowel syndrome. That in the Mechanisms of Disease series written by Ghoshal and colleagues canvasses the potential roles of gut infections and microbiotica,2 whereas that by Gibson and Shepherd discusses the Advances in Clinical Practice afforded by consideration of food (specifically FODMAP) sensitivity.3 Hereafter, one article from each series will appear in most issues of the Journal. While the Editors take responsibility for developing suitable

topics and inviting authors to write these reviews, we would be interested to hear from you, our readers, on your ideas for topics that should be covered in the Asia–Pacific

region. In addition to making the Journal more efficient, more readable and more effective as a vehicle for promoting Asia–Pacific science BIBW2992 research buy and the practice of gastroenterology and hepatology, we are also making it more accessible. Specifically, most subscriptions to JGH are now electronic ones, submission and review are entirely electronic processes, and we have recently taken the decision to increase the content available for download free of charge. This now includes all editorial content (Table of Contents, Editorials, In this Issue, Images of Interest and Education), and all review articles, including meta-analyses, miniseries reviews and the selleck inhibitor new series mentioned earlier. From this issue, it will also include a selected number

(four to six per issue) of what we perceive to be our most exciting original articles, corresponding to those selected for comment in In This Issue. The occasion of our 25th Anniversary in December 2010 will also be marked by a Silver Jubilee supplement; this will accompany the first issue of 2011 (Volume 26 : 1). We have invited 20 or so of our most successful authors of the last 25 years, whose articles rank at the top of our most cited ever, to write thought-provoking reviews of past, present and future developments in their field. We anticipate that this will allow us to compile an incredibly stimulating and readable Supplement. With all these improvements and exciting developments, we hope not to be two, well before we turn Casein kinase 1 30! But only you, the authors, can determine how much our reputation, utility and impact factor can improve by sending us some of your best articles to publish in JGH. Working with a panel of editors who are regional leaders in their countries and fields, together with our expanded panel of approximately100 Editorial Board Members, we hope to promote the further growth and development of our great twin specialities in this important Asia–Pacific part of the world. “
“We read with great interest the article by Tanaka et al.1 showing high serum levels of tauro-β-muricholic and taurocholic acid in two animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

The

study was a prospective investigation of the changes

The

study was a prospective investigation of the changes in immunoregulatory markers in the blood, bone marrow, and liver allograft in recipients converted from TAC monotherapy to SRL monotherapy for clinical indications (e.g., TAC toxicity). Inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥18 years; ≥6 months post-LT; TAC monotherapy ≥1 month before SRL monotherapy conversion for nephrotoxicity (glomular filtration rate [GFR] 30-60 cc/min by modified diet in renal disease [MDRD]) or other indication; ≥6 months without a rejection episode; Tanespimycin mouse no lymphocyte depletion therapy for ≥1 year; normal liver-function tests; and no rejection or fibrosis on preconversion liver biopsy. Exclusion criteria were as follows: previous liver or multiorgan transplant; previous immune or viral liver disease unless hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was undetectable; proteinuria (≥0.5 g/day); estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤30 cc/min; ≥2 rejections

post-LT; history of hepatic artery thrombosis; hematological abnormalities or severe hypertriglyceridemia; active infection or malignancy; and inadequacy for follow-up. All patients signed informed consent and were followed for 7 months after SRL conversion. The protocol conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki guidelines and was approved by the Northwestern Institutional this website Review Board (Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL). History and physical exams, complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic panels, fasting lipids, hemoglobin A1C tests (HgA1C), and spot urine protein:creatinine ratios were performed before and 3 and 6 months after conversion. Bone marrow aspirations and percutaneous liver biopsies were performed once before and 6 months after conversion. For conversion, SRL at 2 or 3 mg (< or ≥100 kg body weight) daily was initiated with subsequent weekly SRL trough-level monitoring. When these reached ≥5 ng/mL, TAC was discontinued followed by weekly laboratory tests and SRL trough levels (goal, 5-8 ng/mL) for 1 month,

then monthly. Prospective liver- and renal-function tests, lipid levels, urine protein:creatinine Smoothened ratios, and any new SRL toxicities were recorded. Treg immunophenotyping (twice before conversion and 3, 4, 6, and 7 months after conversion): Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from heparinized samples on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. Tregs were enumerated utilizing extracellular immunofluorescent staining with CD3-FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate), CD4-PerCP (peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex), CD8-PerCP, CD25-APC, and CD127-FITC (BD Biosciences, San Diego, CA). After fixation and permeabilization, the cells were washed and incubated with anti-human FOXP3-PE (phycoerythrin) or rat immunoglobulin G2a-PE isotype control (eBioscience, San Diego, CA) (21, 22).

Articles

were screened using MEDLINE (n = 566), EMBASE (n

Articles

were screened using MEDLINE (n = 566), EMBASE (n = 201), and the Cochrane Library (n = 1). Two independent reviewers assessed articles PXD101 molecular weight for inclusion under the overarching purposes of the review by using the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) tool, and the quality of the studies were graded using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. The electronic literature search retrieved 777 references (after duplicates were removed). A total of 32 studies were chosen for inclusion from the results of the search and review of bibliographical references. Using the STARD tool, seven studies were of excellent quality of reporting, and using the selleck compound QUADAS-2 tool, 10 studies were judged to be of adequate quality. There is ‘fair’ evidence to recommend MRI as an accurate test for detecting evidence of haemophilic arthropathy and the use of second or third generation MRI scales for assessing haemophilic arthropathy. However, there is no evidence that screening of early intra-articular

soft tissue bleed with MRI improves the functional status of joints over time. “
“Summary.  The mechanism of action of antibodies inhibiting partially factor VIII (FVIII) activity (type II inhibitor) is still poorly understood. We produced an unusual type II monoclonal antibody, called LE2E9, derived from a patient with mild haemophilia A. The antibody displayed several unexpected structural and functional properties such as glycosylation in the variable region, binding to the FVIII C1 domain, inhibition of maximum 80–90%

FVIII activity when in excess over FVIII, and prevention of FVIII binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF). Those unusual characteristics of the antibody prompted multidisciplinary studies to determine its mechanism of action and the role of the FVIII C1 domain. Enzymatic deglycosylation and site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the oligosaccharides do not determine the affinity of the antibody next but enhanced its FVIII neutralizing activity. Modification of glycosylation in the variable region of antibodies therefore contributes to the diversity of FVIII type II inhibition and provides a novel strategy with which to modulate the functional activity of antibodies. Investigation of the FVIII C1 domain function led to identification of mutations located in that domain and impairing FVIII binding to VWF as a common cause of mild/moderate haemophilia A. Finally, the cloning of human monoclonal antibodies inhibiting partially FVIII activity opened the way to evaluate such antibodies as a novel type of anticoagulant drug.

7%) Taking prescription headache medication was associated with

7%). Taking prescription headache medication was associated with poorer perceived mental health status, higher anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and higher rates of traumatic events.

The association between prescription headache medication use and perceived mental health status, and with the association between prescription headache medication use and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, was stronger for men than for women. Among OEF/OIF veterans, the prevalence of clinically relevant headache is high, particularly among women veterans. Taking prescription headache medication is associated with poor mental health status, higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, and higher rates of traumatic events; however, these variables did not appear to meaningfully account for gender differences in prevalence of taking prescription headache INCB024360 medication. Future research should endeavor to identify factors that might account for the observed differences. Romidepsin
“Chronic migraineurs (CM) have painful intolerances to somatosensory, visual, olfactory, and auditory stimuli during and between migraine attacks. These intolerances are suggestive of atypical affective responses to potentially noxious stimuli. We hypothesized that atypical resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) of affective pain-processing brain regions may associate with these intolerances. This study compared

rs-fc of affective pain-processing regions in CM with controls. Twelve minutes Thiamet G of resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent data were collected from 20 interictal adult CM and 20 controls. Rs-fc between 5 affective regions (anterior cingulate cortex, right/left anterior insula, and right/left amygdala) with the rest of the brain was determined. Functional connections consistently differing between CM and controls were identified using

summary analyses. Correlations between number of migraine years and the strengths of functional connections that consistently differed between CM and controls were calculated. Functional connections with affective pain regions that differed in CM and controls included regions in anterior insula, amygdala, pulvinar, mediodorsal thalamus, middle temporal cortex, and periaqueductal gray. There were significant correlations between the number of years with CM and functional connectivity strength between the anterior insula with mediodorsal thalamus and anterior insula with periaqueductal gray. CM is associated with interictal atypical rs-fc of affective pain regions with pain-facilitating and pain-inhibiting regions that participate in sensory-discriminative, cognitive, and integrative domains of the pain experience. Atypical rs-fc with affective pain regions may relate to aberrant affective pain processing and atypical affective responses to painful stimuli characteristic of CM.

Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% con

Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The inclusion criteria were met by 3649 HCC cases, 743 ICC cases, and 195,953 comparison persons. Metabolic syndrome was significantly more common among persons who

developed HCC (37.1%) and ICC (29.7%) than the comparison group (17.1%, P < 0.0001). In adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses, metabolic syndrome remained significantly associated with increased risk of HCC (odds ratio = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.96-2.31, P < 0.0001) and ICC (odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.32-1.83, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is a significant Daporinad purchase risk factor for development of HCC and ICC in the general U.S. population. (HEPATOLOGY 2011;) The incidences of both types of primary liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), have increased in the United States.1, 2 Major risk factors for HCC in industrialized countries are chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and excessive alcohol consumption.3 The documented increase in HCV- and HBV-related HCC, however, does not fully explain the recent increase in HCC incidence, because 20%-50% of HCC cases remain idiopathic.3 ICC has been associated

with several diseases of the biliary tract selleck compound library or liver, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, Caroli’s disease, cholelithiasis, HCV infection, liver fluke infestation, and inflammatory bowel disease.4 These factors account for only a small proportion of the attributable risk of ICC in the United States, because many ICC cases do not appear to be associated with any of the abovementioned risk factors.5 In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

(NASH) have received increasing attention for their relationship with end-stage liver disease and HCC.6-11 NAFLD and NASH are clearly associated with Teicoplanin the metabolic syndrome, comprising a cluster of interrelated metabolic risk factors such as raised fasting glucose, central obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, and hypertension.12-15 In concert with the recent worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome,16-18 the incidence and prevalence of NAFLD has also increased. It is estimated that up to 37% of the population in industrialized countries exhibit NAFLD, turning it into the most frequent liver disease in these countries.13, 19, 20 The association between metabolic syndrome or NAFLD/NASH and HCC has been documented in case reports, case series, and longitudinal studies7, 8, 11, 21-24; however, larger population-based studies investigating the magnitude of this association in the United States are lacking.

lagunensis contributes to the ability of this organism to sustain

lagunensis contributes to the ability of this organism to sustain prolonged bloom (continuously

for ∼8 years) under reduced light conditions, but not A. anophagefferens (a few months), remains an open question. “
“The life cycle of the unicellular green alga Opaganib purchase Haematococcus pluvialis consists of motile and nonmotile stages under typical growing conditions. In this study, we observed that motile cells were more susceptible than nonmotile cells to high light, resulting in a decrease in population density and photo-bleaching. Using two Haematococcus strains, CCAP 34/12 (a motile cell dominated strain) and SAG 34/1b (a nonmotile cell dominated strain), as model systems we investigated the cause of cell death and the protective mechanisms of the cells that survived high light. The death of motile cells under high light was attributed Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library in vitro to the generation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused severe damage to the photosynthetic components and the membrane system. Motile cells were able to dissipate excess light energy by nonphotochemical quenching and to relax ROS production by a partially up-regulated scavenging enzyme system. However, these strategies were not sufficient to protect the motile cells from high light stress.

In contrast, nonmotile cells were able to cope with and survive under high light by (i) relaxing the over-reduced photosynthetic electron transport chain (PETC), thereby effectively utilizing PETC-generated NADPH to produce storage starch, neutral lipid, and astaxanthin, and thus preventing formation of excess ROS; (ii) down-regulating the linear electron transport by decreasing the level of cytochrome f; and (iii) consuming excess electrons produced by PSII via a significantly enhanced plastid terminal oxidase pathway. “
“Many scleractinian corals must acquire their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) anew each generation from environmental pools, and exchange between endosymbiotic and environmental pools of Symbiodinium (reef waters and sediments) has been proposed as a mechanism for optimizing coral physiology in the face of environmental change. Our understanding of the

diversity of Symbiodinium spp. in environmental pools is poor by comparison Lenvatinib to that engaged in endosymbiosis, which reflects the challenges of visualizing the genus against the backdrop of the complex and diverse micro-eukaryotic communities found free-living in the environment. Here, the molecular diversity of Symbiodinium living in the waters and sediments of a reef near Coconut Island, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, sampled at four hourly intervals over a period of 5 d was characterized using a Symbiodinium-specific hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S. A comparison of Symbiodinium spp. diversity recovered from environmental samples with the endosymbiotic diversity in coral species that dominate the adjacent reef revealed limited overlap between these communities.