After characterizing antibiograms and genomic variations in chromosome and plasmid of chicken isolates,
flagellar antigens of chicken and human isolates were compared to understand the common antigens possibly for transmission of Salmonella between human and chicken. Methods Sample collection and enrichment Totally 1595 chickens of 1-year-old broiler breeder, 1-day-old chicks (Chick) and 9-week-old chickens (NHC) of Taiwan broiler chicken, 1-year-old layers and 3-week-old broiler were sampled by 108C Amies Agar Gel – Single plastic swab (Copan Diagnostic Inc. Murrieta CA 92562 USA) from cloaca of Cilomilast each chicken fed at different farms in Chiayi of Taiwan from 2002 to 2003. Layers and broilers were fed in commercial
cage and house farm respectively. The sampled swabs were grown in 9 mL of gram-negative broth (GN, Difco 0486) at 37°C for 24 h. Over-night GN bacterial broth was streaked on xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD, Difco 0788) plates, which were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Black colonies were further examined by biochemical tests including triple sugar iron agar (TSI), Christensen’s urea agar (URE), Simmons’ citrate agar (CIT), sulfide-indole-motility medium (SIM), Voges-Proskauer medium (VP), Moller’s ornithine decarboxylase medium (ORN), lysine iron agar (LIA) and mobility-indole-ornithine agar (MIO) purchased from Merck (Taiwan). At least two positive isolates from each plate were maintained on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA). In addition, Salmonellae from 9-week-old NHC in Tainan (36 isolates) and Pintung (30 isolates) Selleckchem Pexidartinib at same period were also analyzed. Serogroup and serotype identification Salmonella-positive isolates were further serogrouped by the slide agglutination test with the use of O-antigen antiserum and serotyped by the tube agglutination test with the use of H-antigen antisera. Fludarabine Both antisera were purchased from Difco (Becton Dickinson Co., Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). In addition, 5314 Salmonellae were collected from
19 medical centers and district hospitals located throughout the countries from 2003 to 2005 and serotyped in the Salmonella Reference Laboratory of Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Department of Health, Taiwan, with antisera purchased from S&A Reagents Lab (Bangkok, Thailand), Denka Seiken (Tokyo, Japan), Statens Serum Institut (Copenhagen, Denmark), and a local biotech company, LTK Biolaboratories (Taoyuan, Taiwan). Phase induction was performed using a paper-bridged method developed in the laboratory of Taiwan CDC . Antimicrobial susceptibility test Each isolate was examined by disk diffusion method for its susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents including ampicillin (A, 10 μg), cefazolin (CZ, 30 μg), ceftriaxone (Cro, 30 μg), chloramphenicol (C. 30 μg), streptomycin (S, 10 μg), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprium (Sxt, 1.25/23.75 μg), and tetracycline (T, 30 μg).