The treated cells were harvested and washed with PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin. Cells were incubated with anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 antibody for 30 min
at 4°C in the dark. After incubation, cells were washed twice and reacted with PE-labeled secondary antibody for 30 min at 4°C in the dark. Isotype-matched nonbinding antibodies (Iso) were the negative control cells. Samples were measured by flow cytometry. Analysis of the cell cycle was performed by staining with PI. Cells were seeded into a 100-mm dish, which contained AZD2281 1 × 106 cells per plate. After 24 h, the media were changed to RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with indicated concentrations of Rg5. After 48 h of incubation, the cells were trypsinized and washed with ice-cold PBS, fixed with ice-cold 90% ethanol, and then incubated at −20°C until analysis. For cell cycle analysis, the cells were resuspended in 300 mL of PBS containing 30 μL RNase A solution (10 mg/mL; Sigma-Aldrich) and 1.5 μL PI solution (1 mg/mL; Molecular Probes). After incubation at 37°C for 30 min, cells were determined using the FACSCanto II Flow Cytometer (BD
Biosciences). The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by FlowJo software (Tree Star, Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). Cells were plated at 0.3 × 106 cells in six-well plates. After treatment, the cells were fixed in DMSO/methanol (1:4) solution for 12 h at 4°C, stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole selleck compound (DAPI) for 20 min, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical significance was performed by Turkey’s multiple comparison tests (Sigma Plot version 10.0; Systat Software, San Jose, CA). All experiments were repeated at least three times. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and each value was presented as the mean ± the standard deviation. The yield of ginsenosides from ginseng hairy root (i.e., fine root) was higher than the yield from the main root , and the saponin Dipeptidyl peptidase content of FBG was higher
than that of BG . First of all, the HPLC results showed Rg5 was the main constituent among the ginsenosides in FBG (Fig. 1A). Rg5 was separated from FBG BF using column chromatography (silica gel, ODS) (Figs. 1B, 1C), and the chemical structure was confirmed by spectroscopic methods [e.g., NMR, mass spectroscopy (MS)] (Fig. 2). The effects of FBG EE and FBG BF on cell viability were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell lines by MTT assay. The results showed that EE reduced MCF-7 cell viability after 48 h of treatment and it decreased cell viability of MDA-MB-453 cells after 72 h (Figs. 3A, 3B). Increased cell viability was detected in MCF-7 cells when it was treated with 50 μg/mL (at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h) and 100 μg/mL (24 h) of BF, but at higher concentrations (150 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL) the cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner (Figs. 3C, 3D). As Figs.