The treated cells were harvested and washed with PBS containing 1

The treated cells were harvested and washed with PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin. Cells were incubated with anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 antibody for 30 min

at 4°C in the dark. After incubation, cells were washed twice and reacted with PE-labeled secondary antibody for 30 min at 4°C in the dark. Isotype-matched nonbinding antibodies (Iso) were the negative control cells. Samples were measured by flow cytometry. Analysis of the cell cycle was performed by staining with PI. Cells were seeded into a 100-mm dish, which contained AZD2281 1 × 106 cells per plate. After 24 h, the media were changed to RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with indicated concentrations of Rg5. After 48 h of incubation, the cells were trypsinized and washed with ice-cold PBS, fixed with ice-cold 90% ethanol, and then incubated at −20°C until analysis. For cell cycle analysis, the cells were resuspended in 300 mL of PBS containing 30 μL RNase A solution (10 mg/mL; Sigma-Aldrich) and 1.5 μL PI solution (1 mg/mL; Molecular Probes). After incubation at 37°C for 30 min, cells were determined using the FACSCanto II Flow Cytometer (BD

Biosciences). The cell cycle distribution was analyzed by FlowJo software (Tree Star, Inc., Ashland, OR, USA). Cells were plated at 0.3 × 106 cells in six-well plates. After treatment, the cells were fixed in DMSO/methanol (1:4) solution for 12 h at 4°C, stained with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole selleck compound (DAPI) for 20 min, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. Statistical significance was performed by Turkey’s multiple comparison tests (Sigma Plot version 10.0; Systat Software, San Jose, CA). All experiments were repeated at least three times. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and each value was presented as the mean ± the standard deviation. The yield of ginsenosides from ginseng hairy root (i.e., fine root) was higher than the yield from the main root [2], and the saponin Dipeptidyl peptidase content of FBG was higher

than that of BG [23]. First of all, the HPLC results showed Rg5 was the main constituent among the ginsenosides in FBG (Fig. 1A). Rg5 was separated from FBG BF using column chromatography (silica gel, ODS) (Figs. 1B, 1C), and the chemical structure was confirmed by spectroscopic methods [e.g., NMR, mass spectroscopy (MS)] (Fig. 2). The effects of FBG EE and FBG BF on cell viability were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cell lines by MTT assay. The results showed that EE reduced MCF-7 cell viability after 48 h of treatment and it decreased cell viability of MDA-MB-453 cells after 72 h (Figs. 3A, 3B). Increased cell viability was detected in MCF-7 cells when it was treated with 50 μg/mL (at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h) and 100 μg/mL (24 h) of BF, but at higher concentrations (150 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL) the cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner (Figs. 3C, 3D). As Figs.

In addition, to our knowledge, this study is the first report to

In addition, to our knowledge, this study is the first report to characterise the chemical compositions of JBOVS. The in vitro incubation with JBOVS influenced the microbial community in the feces accompanied by an increase selleck chemicals llc in the production level of lactate and a decrease in the pH level. This result was

consistent with the observed increase in the production levels of lactate in the mice intestines after ingestion of the JBOVS. Therefore, JBOVS was likely to cause a similar fluctuation of metabolic dynamics in the microbial community both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our results revealed that ingestion of JBOVS contributed to lactate and acetate production in the intestinal microbiota. In contrast, an increased population

of bacteria related to L. murinus and belonging to the Bacteroidetes sp. group was influenced by the intake of JBOVS into the host-microbial symbiotic systems. This in vivo observation was somewhat different to the observed increased population of bacteria related to L. johnsonii, L. murinus, and L. fermentum found in the in vitro experiment. This small difference was considered a bias brought about by the in vitro incubation because the environmental factors Screening Library order for growth, metabolism, and interactions of microbiota were considerably different compared with the in vivo conditions. Taken together, the in vitro and in vivo metabolic profiling results were similar whereas the in vitro and in vivo microbial community profiling showed some variability. Therefore, metabolic profiling by in vitro methods may offer a practical approach for easy screening to measure the metabolic endpoints that link directly to whole system activity and are determined by both microbial ecosystems and environmental factors. In addition, lactate and acetate may be considered as useful biomarkers for in vitro screening because they correlate tightly with intestinal microbiota and host cells and several beneficial effects for human health were over reported ( Fukuda et al., 2011 and Okada et

al., 2013). According to our in vivo observations, increases in the L. murinus and Bacteroidetes sp. populations and acetate and lactate production levels in the intestine were the result of the effects to the intestinal microbiota and host-microbial co-metabolic process. Acetate has been reported to show anti-inflammatory properties ( Fukuda et al., 2011), which are derived by colonic bacteria after fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. Moreover, acetate has been reported to bind and activate the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR43, and stimulation of GPR43 by short-chain fatty acids including acetate is necessary for the normal resolution of certain immune and inflammatory responses ( Maslowski et al., 2009). Therefore, acetate is considered to play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis in host-microbial ecosystems.

7 μmol Trolox/g fruit, pH 7 0) and ORAC (16 4 μmol Trolox/g fruit

7 μmol Trolox/g fruit, pH 7.0) and ORAC (16.4 μmol Trolox/g fruit, pH 7.4) found in this study were also close to the ones obtained for juice samples of Depsipeptide different varieties of cherry, 20–26 μmol Trolox/g fruit for ABTS +, and 12–19 μmol Trolox/g fruit for ORAC, both at pH 7.4 (Blando, Gerardi, & Nicoletti, 2004). In summary, two very important classes of bioactive compounds were characterised in jambolão fruit, and for the first time the compositions of carotenoids and of non-anthocyanic phenolic compounds were reported. The free radical scavenging capacity

of the jambolão functional extract varied according to the pH values, with a tendency to increased activity at higher pH values. Regarding the protection against singlet oxygen, the functional extract showed higher antioxidant features as compared to those from other fruits rich in anthocyanins. The authors acknowledge Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and

Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for financial support. “
“The proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols, which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. In particular, procyanidins consisting of catechin units [(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin], and prodelphinidins, based on gallocatechin units [(+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin], represent a ubiquitous group of plant phenolics (Prieur et al., 1994 and Souquet et al., 1996). There is a lack Angiogenesis inhibitor of chemical studies on these groups, possibly due to the difficulties associated with determining tannins, given their polymeric nature and large structural diversity. In wine, flavan-3-ols are one of the major classes of flavonoids present. They are found in grape skin and seeds from which they are extracted into the must during vinification (Souquet et al., 1996). These compounds are particularly important in terms of the sensory characteristics of wines, such

as astringency and bitterness (Chira, Schmauch, Saucier, Fabre, & Teissedre, 2009), which are dependent on the structure and degree of polymerisation (Souquet et al., 1996). Moreover, it has been reported that PAs have high antioxidant capacity in vitro ( Mattivi et al., 2002, Raza and John, 2007 and Rigo et al., 2000) and in vivo ( Cirico & Omaye, 2006). Monomeric units of catechins, Florfenicol including catechin itself, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and gallate esters, for instance, have been shown to increase plasma antioxidant capacity and the resistance of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation ( Frankel, Waterhouse, & Teissedre, 1995). São Joaquim is a new wine growing region located in the high plains of Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil. It is known in Brazil as the coldest place in the country, and it lies at the highest altitude (1200–1400 m) in relation to other viticulture regions in Brazil (Falcão et al., 2008a).

The acetone was removed from cells, after which 96-well plates we

The acetone was removed from cells, after which 96-well plates were left to dry in oven at 60°C for 30 min. Then, 100 μL of 0.4% (w/v) SRB in 1% acetic acid (v/v) was added to each well and incubated at room temperature for 30 min. Unbound INCB018424 ic50 SRB was removed by washing the plates five times with 1% acetic acid (v/v), and the plates were then left to dry in an oven. After drying

for 1 day, cell morphology was assessed under a microscope at 4 × 10 magnification (AXIOVERT10; Zeiss, Göttingen, Deutschland) and images were acquired. Fixed SRB in wells was solubilized with 100 μL of unbuffered Tris-base solution (10 mM), and plates were incubated at room temperature for 30 min. Absorbance in each well was read at 540 nm using a VERSAmax microplate reader (Molecular Devices, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a reference absorbance of 620 nm. The antiviral activity of each test compound in CVB3- or EV71-infected

cells was calculated as a percentage of the corresponding untreated control. The antiviral activity of seven ginsenosides against HRV3 was determined using a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin, USA). The Cell Titer-Glo Reagent induces cell lysis and the generation of luminescence proportional to the amount of ATP present in cells. The resulting luminescence intensity is measured using a luminometer (Molecular Devices) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, HeLa cells were seeded RG7204 supplier onto a 96-well culture plate, after which 0.09 mL of diluted HRV3 suspension containing CCID50 of the virus stock, and 0.01 mL culture medium supplemented with 20 mM MgCl2 and the appropriate concentration of ginsenosides, was added to the cells. The antiviral activity of each test material was determined using a concentration series of 0.1 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, 10 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL. Culture plates were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2. After 48 h, 100 μL of Cell Titer-Glo reagent was added to each well, and the plate was incubated at room Adenylyl cyclase temperature for 10 min. The resulting luminescence was measured and the percentage cell viability was calculated as described

for the antiviral activity assays. Cell morphology was assessed as described for the SRB assay. To measure cytotoxicity, cells were seeded onto a 96-well culture plate at a density of 2 × 104 cells/well. The following day, the culture medium containing serially diluted compounds was added to the cells and incubated for 48 h, after which the culture medium was removed and cells were washed with PBS. The next step was conducted as described above for the antiviral activity assay. To calculate the CC50 values, the data were expressed as percentages relative to controls, and CC50 values were obtained from the resulting dose–response curves. Differences across more than three groups were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (Graphpad PRISM, version 5.01, San Diego, CA, USA).

4B The intensities

of ions b and f were relatively high

4B. The intensities

of ions b and f were relatively high in all ARG samples, but they were undetectable in the KRG samples. Ions a, c, d, and e were detected in most of the samples, but the intensities of these ions were selleck compound relatively higher in all ARG samples than in the KRG group. The ion intensity trends suggested that components related to ions a–f could be used as potential chemical markers of ARG to distinguish it from KRG. The intensities of ions h and j were relatively high in all KRG samples, but they were undetectable in ARG. And ions g, i, k, and l were mainly detected in KRG as relatively higher intensities than in another group. These ion intensity trends suggested that components related to ions g–l could be used as potential chemical markers of KRG to distinguish it from ARG. In order to identify the important potential marker ions, such as ginsenoside Rf, Ra1, F2, and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, a qualitative analysis of ginsenosides present in KRG and ARG was performed. The identifications

of marker ions confirmed in samples by individual ginsenoside standard Vorinostat nmr materials were compared with respect to each other, and the results are summarized in Table 2. As a result, ions b and f were the fragment ions from the same molecule, and these ions were [M−H]– and [M−H+HCOOH]– from 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11, respectively, and ion h was [M−H]– from ginsenoside-Rf. These two ginsenosides occupy an important position in Fig. 4A (top-right and lower-left corner of “S”). This phenomenon confirmed the fact that ginsenoside-Rf and 24(R)-pseudoginsenoside F11 could be used as marker substances of KRG and ARG, respectively. Ginsenosides Ra1 and F2 were confirmed in all samples, but do not occupy an important position in Fig. 4A. This is because ginsenosides Ra1 and F2 had low values of “factor of change” derived from the low concentration and high standard deviation in samples. This means that these ginsenosides showed a low contribution to the

distinction between the processed ginseng genera. Farnesyltransferase Other potential marker ions were identified by comparing the spectrum of standard materials and selected ions in samples and individual retention times. Ions a and c were the fragment ions from the same molecule, and these ions were [M−H]– and [M−H+HCOOH]– from ginsenoside Rd, respectively. Ions d and e were the fragment ions from ginsenoside-Re with respect to [M−H]– and [M−H+HCOOH]–. Ions g and k were confirmed as [M−H]– and [M−H+HCOOH]– of ginsenoside Rc, and ion i was confirmed as [M−H]– ion of ginsenoside Rg1 by use of standard materials. These ions could not be used as a marker substance; it is only because of the difference between the concentrations of the two groups is a phenomenon. These are called “false-positives” in metabolomics and should be excluded by other verification methods (using standard material). Finally, in Fig. 4, ion j occupies an important position but could not be confirmed by standard materials.

2:1 for fallows and 15 1:1 for pastures A damaged trunk usually

2:1 for fallows and 15.1:1 for pastures. A damaged trunk usually resprouts with multiple shoots, many of which develop into stems during the consecutive fallow period. Once cut

by the next slash-and-burn event, each of these resprouted stems may develop several shoots. The result is a progressive increase (F = 19.365; p < 0.001) in the number of stems each time the individual resprouts ( Fig. 2c). However, the BN tree also exhibit self-thinning, as we inferred from the significant decrease (T = 4.923, p < 0.001) in the number of stems on resprouts growing at recently cultivated sites compared to those in fallows older than ten years. Under the assumption that the nearest productive BN tree represented PCI-32765 manufacturer the putative seed source, we calculated the average distance between the established propagules and the nearest parent trees as 70 m, with the distances ranging from 6 to 277 m. Arranged by 20-m width frequency classes, 80% of the regeneration occurred within a radius of 100 m of the closest productive adult. The remaining 20% occurred at distances of up to 200 m. Only two individuals were found growing further apart (Fig. 3). The size of the sites can also influence the dispersal distance, and area was significantly related to regeneration density (F = 9.045, p = 0.005). The regeneration density significantly influenced (T = 4.375, p < 0.001) the extractivists’

decision to preserve fallows sites spontaneously enriched to with BN trees from further conversion into crops or pastures ( Fig. 4a). We investigated the protection of individual BN trees and confirmed the existence of an informal management practice directed at preserving at least some of the individuals encountered in fallows selected to be replanted. The differences between the log10 height (T = 2.689, p = 0.007) ( Fig. 4b) and log10 diameter (T = 3.965, p < 0.001)

( Fig. 4c) of regeneration found inside and on the perimeter of the agricultural sites were both significant. Observed regeneration density did not vary significantly either with the current agricultural use (F = 3.221, p = 0.051) or with the fallow period since the last slash-and-burn event (F = 0.442, p = 0.51). Of all of the variables related to regeneration density, the number of cultivation cycles was clearly the most influential (Fig. 1). This close relationship also characterized the finding of a previous sociological study that compared BN collecting and itinerant agriculture as economic choices of an indigenous population living by the Solimões River, Amazonas (Pereira and Lescure, 1994). The authors noticed a gradient in BN tree density that increased from the inner portion of the territory (1.79 trees ha−1) to the river’s margin (3.09 trees ha−1), which was precisely the zone occupied by the mosaic of itinerant crops and fallows. Our results confirmed this impression because the BN density increased with the number of SC cycles (Fig. 2a).

By evaluating

By evaluating PCI-32765 clinical trial the action of the solution in the different thirds, no significant difference was observed when EDTA, citric acid, and phosphoric acid gel were used. The use of phosphoric acid was more effective in the cervical and middle thirds than in the apical third. At 1 minute, the control group showed the worst results compared with

the experimental ones. The phosphoric acid solution was more effective than EDTA, citric acid, and phosphoric acid gel in the apical and middle thirds. In the cervical third, the phosphoric acid solution was significantly better than citric acid and EDTA, and no statistical difference was observed between phosphoric acid solution and gel. With regard to the action of the same solution in different thirds, EDTA showed better activity in cervical third than in middle and apical thirds. The citric acid was shown to be more effective in the cervical and middle thirds than in the apical third. The use of phosphoric acid solution and gel did not show difference between the thirds. At 3 minutes, phosphoric acid solution was the most effective chemical agent used in the apical third, followed by citric acid, EDTA, and phosphoric acid gel. In the middle and cervical thirds, no significant differences were observed. Again, the control group showed

the worst results. By comparing the same solutions in different thirds, EDTA and citric acid were more effective BEZ235 datasheet in the cervical third than in the middle

and apical thirds. The phosphoric acid gel was more efficient in the cervical ifenprodil and middle thirds than in the apical third. Phosphoric acid solution did not show significant difference between the thirds. When the phosphoric acid gel was used in all periods of time, it was possible to verify in some samples the persistence of a residual layer of this substance. Regarding the dentinal integrity, all substances generated some degree of erosion in the cervical and middle thirds for irrigation at 1 minute or longer. It is noteworthy that the literature describes a variety of chemicals with a broad range of concentrations and different irrigation regimens to remove the smear layer. This study used EDTA, a well-known chelating agent widely used to remove inorganic components of the smear layer 18 and 19, citric acid, a weak organic acid with relatively low cytotoxicity used as an aqueous acidic solution 20 and 21; and finally, phosphoric acid, a strong acid routinely used in dentistry to remove the smear layer and smear plugs formed during coronal cavity preparations (22). Although some studies on the ability of phosphoric acid in removing smear layer from root canals are available in the literature, the concentrations used are rather low (below 5% and 24%) compared with the ones used to remove the smear layer from coronal dentin. In addition, there is no consensus on the ideal time of irrigation 7, 16 and 17.

Due to the type of chemical modification, only the antisense stra

Due to the type of chemical modification, only the antisense strand can participate in RNAi, thus avoiding not only unwanted, sense strand-mediated, off-target effects but also preventing any possible interference of the sense strand with adenoviral transcripts generated from the opposite viral DNA strand not intended to be targeted. Besides, this type

of modification (frequently present in similar versions LY294002 mw in commercial siRNAs) can increase the intracellular half-life of siRNAs and reduce their cytotoxicity. The pTP-si1 to pTP-si4 siRNAs (obtained from Ambion/LifeTechnologies Austria, Vienna, Austria) were 21-mer, unmodified siRNAs carrying two nucleotide (nt) TT overhangs at their 3′ ends and were also included in our experiments. As negative controls, two distinct universal non-targeting siRNAs (Invitrogen, Ambion), matching the type of design of the respective targeting siRNAs, were employed. SiRNAs were designed using the Invitrogen BLOCK-iT™ RNAi Designer or Dharmacon selleck siDESIGN tools

and target site accessibility, as calculated by RNAxs (, was taken into account. 1.4e+05 HEK293 and 3e+04 A549 cells were seeded into the wells of 96-well plates, and reverse transfected with 50 ng of individual dual-luciferase reporter vectors and 30 nM targeting or non-targeting control siRNA using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen/LifeTechnologies Austria, Vienna, Austria). Briefly, for each well 0.5 μL Lipofectamine 2000 was diluted with 24.5 μL OptiMEM medium (Invitrogen/LifeTechnologies Austria, Vienna, Austria), and after 5 min of incubation, 25 μL diluted Lipofectamine 2000 was mixed with 25 μL of a specific siRNA/reporter vector mix (diluted in OptiMEM). After 20 min of incubation, the mixes were pipetted directly into the wells of a 96-well plate

and freshly harvested cells were added. After 24 h of incubation, Methamphetamine medium was exchanged and cells were incubated for another 24 h. Culture conditions were as described above. Firefly and Renilla luciferase activities were determined at 48 h post-transfection using the Dual-Glo luciferase assay (Promega), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 75 μL of Dual-Glo Reagent was added to cells grown in 75 μL medium, and after 10 min of incubation at room temperature, firefly luciferase activity was measured. Next, one volume of Dual-Glo Stop & Glo reagent was added to each well, plates were incubated for an additional 10 min at room temperature, and eventually, Renilla luciferase activity was determined. Luminescence was measured on a Wallac Victor 1420 Multilabel Counter (Perkin Elmer Austria, Brunn am Gebirge, Austria). Knockdown rates were calculated by normalizing Renilla luciferase activities to firefly luciferase activities, and comparing dual-luciferase ratios between targeting and non-targeting control siRNAs. 1.

In R

In learn more addition to a tradition of explicitly identifying thresholds, geomorphology has established conceptual frameworks for considering scenarios in which thresholds are not crossed, as well as the manner in which a system can respond once a threshold is crossed. Relevant geomorphic conceptual frameworks include static,

steady-state and dynamic equilibrium (Chorley and Kennedy, 1971 and Schumm, 1977), disequilibrium (Tooth, 2000), steady-state versus transient landscapes (Attal et al., 2008), complex response (Schumm and Parker, 1973), lag time (Howard, 1982 and Wohl, 2010), and transient versus persistent landforms (Brunsden and Thornes, 1979).

I propose that geomorphologists Androgen Receptor Antagonist can effectively contribute to quantifying, predicting, and manipulating critical zone integrity by focusing on connectivity, inequality and thresholds. Specifically, for connectivity, inequality and thresholds, we can provide three services. First, geomorphologists can identify the existence and characteristics of these phenomena. What forms of connectivity exist between a landform such as a river segment and the greater environment, for example? What are the spatial (magnitude, extent) and temporal (frequency, duration) qualities of this connectivity? Where and when do inequalities occur in the landscape – where does most sediment come from and when is most sediment transported? What are the thresholds in fluxes of water, many sediment, or solutes that will cause the river to change in form or stability? Second, geomorphologists can quantify changes in connectivity, inequality or the crossing of thresholds that have resulted from past

human manipulations and predict changes that are likely to result from future manipulations. How do human activities alter fluxes, and how do human societies respond to these altered fluxes? To continue the river example, how did construction of this dam alter longitudinal, lateral, and vertical connectivity on this river? How did altered connectivity change the distribution of hot spots for biogeochemical reactions in the riparian zone or around instream structures such as logjams? How did altered connectivity result in changed sediment supply and river metamorphosis from a braided to a single-thread river, as well as local extinction of fish species? Third, geomorphologists can recommend actions to restore desired levels of connectivity and inequality, as well as actions that can be taken to either prevent crossing of a negative threshold that results in undesirable conditions, or force crossing of a positive threshold that results in desirable conditions.

, 2008) and the UK (Brown, 1997) However, many studies of alluvi

, 2008) and the UK (Brown, 1997). However, many studies of alluvial fills in both the Old World and New Worlds have revealed a mid or late Holocene (sensu Walker et al., 2012) hiatus in sedimentation that is both traceable within valleys and regionally. Although interpreted by the authors as evidence for climatic control on floodplain sedimentation, time-series of cumulative density functions of dates reveals not only peaks related to events or series of events but also an overall trend when these

dates are converted into rates ( Macklin et al., 2010; Fig. 2). All Holocene catchments have a Lateglacial UMI-77 in vivo inheritance which although dominated by climatic forcing (Gibbard and Lewin, 2002) may have been influenced to a minor extent by human activity (Notebaert and Verstraeten, 2010). Since catchment

size can be assumed to have remained constant during the Holocene it follows that changes in floodplain deposition must reflect the sum of the input of sediment to and export from the reach – the basis of the sediment budget approach to fluvial geomorphology. Allowing for geometric considerations, changes in the rate of sediment deposition within valley must then reflect changing inputs (Hoffmann et al., 2010). An important result of the occurrence of relatively small basins and relatively uniform erosion rates is Dabrafenib in vivo high levels of retention of anthropogenic sediments on the lower parts of hillslopes as colluvium or 0 order valleys (Brown, 2009 and Dotterweich et al.,

2013) and in 1st order valley floors (Brown and Barber, 1985 and Houben, 2003). In a recent study of a small catchment in Germany 62% of the sediment produced by 5000 years see more of cultivation still resides in the catchment as colluvium amounting to 9425 t ha−1 (Houben, 2012). This represents an approximate average of 2.6 t ha−1 yr−1 (equivalent to 0.2 mm yr−1) which is close to the median for measured agricultural soil erosion rates (Montgomery, 2007b). Two small catchments are used here to show the existence of a major sedimentary discontinuity associated with human activity within two contrasting valley chronostratigraphies. The catchments of the Culm and Frome are both located in England but are 100 km apart. They are similar in size, altitude, relative relief and even solid geology (Table 1; Fig. 3). The methods used in both studies are standard sedimentary and palaeoecological analytical procedures and can be found in Brown et al. (2011) and will not be detailed here, except for the geophysical and GIS methodology which are outlined below. In both catchments sediment logging from bank exposures and coring was augmented by ground penetrating radar transects.