Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Wild birds

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Wild birds and rodents may play an important role in the dynamics of subclinical pig salmonellosis, either as the introducers of the bacteria LY2606368 ic50 into the farm or as receptors of an infection already

established in the farm. We tried to gain further insight into the epidemiology of this infection by studying the phenotypic (i.e., serotype and antimicrobial resistance patterns) and molecular characteristics of Salmonella strains isolated from samples collected from pigs and wildlife captured in the vicinity of pig farms. Salmonella-positive pig fecal samples were identified in 56.1% of the 41 farms investigated. Birds shedding Salmonella spp. were detected in 21.4% of the farms despite the low numbers of birds captured in many farms. Most Salmonella isolates from birds (74%) did not show any antimicrobial resistance (AR) pattern and belonged to phage types rarely seen in the pig population (U310, DT56, DT137, DT164), supporting the likely avian source of infection for most birds. The proportion CH5183284 cell line of farms showing Salmonella-infected rodents was higher (46.2%), with Salmonella isolates showing a high homology with those likely originated from pigs. Salmonella-positive environmental samples were found in bigger than 50% of the farms, and the characteristics of these Salmonella strains

supported the idea of pigs as a major source of Salmonella contamination of the farm environment. Dissemination of Salmonella in pig farms from areas of high Salmonella prevalence appeared to depend to some extent upon rodents and wild birds present in the farm, but the role of rodents in its maintenance seemed to be somewhat more relevant than that of birds. In conclusion, activities aimed at reducing the contact of these wild species with pigs will probably assist in the control of pig salmonellosis. Strict hygienic measures should be considered in areas of high prevalence of infection to lower the high load of environmental contamination.”
“Abbott CX-6258 in vitro MJ, Edelman AM, Turcotte LP. CaMKK is an upstream signal of AMP-activated protein kinase in regulation of substrate metabolism in contracting skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol

Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297: R1724-R1732, 2009. First published October 7, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00179.2009.-Multiple signals have been shown to be involved in regulation of fatty acid (FA) and glucose metabolism in contracting skeletal muscle. This study aimed to determine whether a Ca(2+)-stimulated kinase, CaMKK, is involved in regulation of contraction-induced substrate metabolism and whether it does so in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. Rat hindlimbs were perfused at rest (n = 16), with 3 mM caffeine (n = 15), with 2 mM 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; n = 16), or during moderate-intensity muscle contraction (MC; n = 14) and with or without 5 mu M STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor. FA uptake and oxidation increased (P < 0.

The experiment has been successfully tested on a human [Fe2S2] pr

The experiment has been successfully tested on a human [Fe2S2] protein which is involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur proteins. Thirteen H-N resonances, unobserved with conventional

HSQC experiments, could be identified. The structural arrangement of the protein scaffold in the proximity of the Fe/S cluster is fundamental to comprehend the molecular processes responsible for the transfer of Fe/S groups in the iron-sulfur protein assembly machineries.”
“Objective: Understanding how physicians navigate through patient Selleck Smoothened Agonist data to construct clinically meaningful information has implication for resident education as well as how patient data is displayed. The purpose of this study was to determine how physicians

reason through patient data presented on a flowsheet in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).\n\nMethods: A volunteer sample of 20 neonatologists took part in this study. Participants evaluated 5 hypothetical case scenarios presented on standardized NICU flowsheets to (1) select the best diagnosis for each case (diagnostic choice) and (2) identify the flowsheet items that most influenced their diagnostic choice (diagnostic reasoning).\n\nResults: Faculty had generally high agreement with respect ACY-738 mouse to their diagnostic choices. There was little agreement on items that faculty considered clinically relevant for each case. On average, only 6% of items per case reached an agreement level of at least 75%.\n\nConclusions: We found that neonatologists who agreed on a diagnosis rarely agreed on the most important data elements that led them to that conclusion. Future studies designed to articulate how physicians decide to direct their attention when presented with flowsheet data may shed light on how this data is utilized and might be optimally presented. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound-guided fine-needle Bcl-2 apoptosis pathway aspiration (FNA) of the axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients depending on the size of the

primary tumor and the appearance of the lymph nodes.\n\nSUBJECTS AND METHODS. Data were collected about tumor size, lymph node appearance, and the results of ultrasound-guided FNA and axillary surgery of 224 patients with breast cancer undergoing 226 ultrasound-guided FNA. Lymph nodes were classified as benign if the cortex was even and measured < 3 mm, indeterminate if the cortex was even but measured >= 3 mm or measured < 3 mm but was focally thickened, and suspicious if the cortex was focally thickened and measured >= 3 mm or the fatty hilum was absent. The results of ultrasound-guided FNAs were analyzed by the sonographic appearance of the axillary lymph nodes and by the size of the primary tumor. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound-guided FNA were calculated with axillary surgery as the reference standard.

Semi-quantification of expression of angiogenic factors was perfo

Semi-quantification of expression of angiogenic factors was performed by Western blotting.\n\nMain Outcome Measures.\n\nExpression www.selleckchem.com/products/brigatinib-ap26113.html of VEGF and Angiopoietins in human corpus cavernosum, using a combination of histologic stainings, and molecular biology tools in order to achieve a better understanding of cavernosal tissue remodeling with aging.\n\nResults.\n\nAged human corpus cavernosum presented wider sinusoidal spaces, loss of muscle cell bundles, and increased connective tissue content. Ang1 was scarcely expressed in small clusters in smooth muscle cell cytoplasm

with identical localization in both studied groups. VEGF expression was abundant in smooth muscle cell and its expression markedly decreased in aged tissue, contrasting with the expression of angiopoietins that increased in the aged corpus cavernosum.\n\nConclusions.\n\nImmunoflourescent studies of cellular markers and growth factors help clarifying vascular organization

and angiogenesis mechanisms in erectile tissue. Our findings demonstrate that the organization pattern of vascular endothelium and smooth muscle components of cavernosal tissue modifies during aging. Ang1 and Ang2 upregulation in human-aged penile tissue suggest a VEGF-independent vascular remodeling mechanism. Tomada N, Tomada I, Cruz F, Vendeira P, and Neves D. Characterization of VEGF and angiopoietins expression in human corpus cavernosum during aging. J Sex Med 2010;7:1410-1418.”
“Background\n\nOsteoarthritis find protocol is the most common form of joint disorder and a leading cause of pain and physical disability.

Observational studies suggested a benefit for joint lavage, but recent, sham-controlled trials yielded conflicting results, suggesting joint lavage not to be effective.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo compare joint lavage with sham intervention, placebo or non-intervention CX-6258 price control in terms of effects on pain, function and safety outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis.\n\nSearch strategy\n\nWe searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL up to 3 August 2009, checked conference proceedings, reference lists, and contacted authors.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nWe included studies if they were randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared arthroscopic and non-arthroscopic joint lavage with a control intervention in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. We did not apply any language restrictions.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nTwo independent review authors extracted data using standardised forms. We contacted investigators to obtain missing outcome information. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) for pain and function, and risk ratios for safety outcomes. We combined trials using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis.\n\nMain results\n\nWe included seven trials with 567 patients.

Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative app

Methods: Exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach. 22 members of a palliative care team were interviewed. The data was analyzed using the content analysis methodology Results: Three different categories were obtained from each professional group (Groups I and II): understanding the autonomy of terminal patients in a palliative care context, reactions of professionals on the daily assistance services, and, limitations of the relationship (autonomy vs. palliative care). Conclusion: Autonomy is an essential component in the palliative care philosophy; it must be able of creating ethical sustainability, applicable to therapeutic projects of

terminal patients.”
“Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) with

osteoclast-like giant cells (OGCs) represents a unique type of breast neoplasm, characterized by the presence of multinucleated TH-302 price OGCs and a vascularized, hemorrhagic stroma. Because of its rarity, the literature regarding this tumor remains limited and a detailed immunophenotype of this tumor has not been established as yet. We report a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 42 patients with invasive carcinoma NST with OGCs. Macroscopically, these tumors presented as a well-delimited red-brown mass. A remarkable feature of the tumor was the presence of OGCs in the fibroblastic or hemorrhagic vascular stroma, as well as in the adjacent SN-38 price tumor nests or glandular lumina. The number of OGCs varied from 8 to 105 per 10 high-power fields with an average of 48. The tumors were well to moderately differentiated. Cribriform architecture was observed in 27 tumors (63 %). All of the 36 available tumors were of luminal phenotype, according to the Ki67 labeling index 89 % luminal A and 11 % luminal B. With a mean follow-up time of 46.4 months, lung metastasis was found in 2 patients (5 %) at 7 and 11 years after the operation, respectively. None

of the other cases had presented with evidence of recurrence or metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of invasive carcinoma NST with OGCs as yet. Our study revealed that invasive carcinoma NST with OGCs exhibit GW4869 nmr a luminal phenotype with luminal A subtype as the major group.”
“Self-renewal is a complex biological process necessary for maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Recent studies have used global proteomic techniques to identify proteins that associate with the master regulators Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 in ESCs or in ESCs during the early stages of differentiation. Through an unbiased proteomic screen, Banf1 was identified as a Sox2-associated protein. Banf1 has been shown to be essential for worm and fly development but, until now, its role in mammalian development and ESCs has not been explored. In this study, we examined the effect of knocking down Banf1 on ESCs.

However, the Success of optimization is highly dependent upon the

However, the Success of optimization is highly dependent upon the level of target expression in the test tissue LY3023414 samples. Transfected cells with proteins of interest can be used as an elegant alternative to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for IHC and ISH protocol optimization, when target expression is unknown. We report a novel method to create agar cell pellets to be used in IHC and ISH protocol optimization and in agar cell pellet arrays (ACPAs). Agar cell pellets are prepared by mixing cells from Cell Cultures with a low-melt agar. After solidification, the resulting pellets are fixed overnight in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed to paraffin with the use of a short processing cycle.

The

use of agar cell pellets reduces the number of animals necessary for antibody optimization and increase,, the confidence in the IHC and ISH protocols. In addition, multiple agar cell pellets may be embedded in a single paraffin block to constitute all ACPA. The use of ACPAs limits the variability in staining/immunolabeling from slide to slide and decreases the amount of reagents used and the numbers of blocks to section. ACPAs are the primary source of positive and negative controls in our laboratory for the initial stages of IHC and ISH optimization, NU7026 ic50 especially for low-expressing targets. (The J Histotechnol 32(4):193-195, 2009)”
“This study investigated electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and its developmental course in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) throughout the lifespan, as well as the accuracy of EEG parameters in distinguishing ADHD patients from typically developing individuals. Three minutes eyes closed resting EEG was compared between 62 individuals with ADHD (36 children, 26 adults) and 55 typically developing individuals (30 children,

25 adults). EEG activity and maturation did not differ between individuals with ADHD and typically developing individuals. However, despite comparable developmental course between clinical groups, persistent elevated theta/beta ratio and reduced relative beta power were observed in the ADHD inattentive subtype compared to the ADHD combined subtype and controls across the lifespan. Therefore, a maturational deviation rather than a maturational delay may underlie a Compound C inhibitor subgroup of ADHD. EEG based classification failed for ADHD but proved successful for age. These findings emphasize heterogeneity in ADHD throughout the lifespan and question clinical utility of conventional EEG approaches for diagnostic purposes in ADHD. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective. To evaluate the association between hyperuricemia and renal disease progression in a real-world, large observational database study. Methods. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study identifying 111,992 patients with hyperuricemia ( bigger than 7 mg/dl) from a large medical group.

CONCLUSION: Both PRGR and RF techniques

can achieve a

\n\nCONCLUSION: Both PRGR and RF techniques

can achieve acceptable pain relief with minimal side effects.”
“Aim: A shortage of obstetricians and gynecologists (OB/GYNs) in Japan has been highlighted. We conducted a descriptive and retrospective cohort study using data from the Survey of Physicians in Japan, and analyzed the dynamics of OB/GYNs.\n\nMethods: We calculated the total numbers of OB/GYNs, their average age, the percentage of female OB/GYNs, hospital OB/GYNs, and the number of OB/GYNs in rural areas in 1974, 1984, 1994 and 2004. We determined the number of physicians who participated in and left the specialty of obstetrics and gynecology. The withdrawal rates of OB/GYN,; who graduated in 1972, 1982 and 1992 were retrospectively followed using HDAC inhibitors list survival analysis.\n\nResults: The overall number of physicians has increased, while the number of OB/GYNs has remained almost unchanged over the past 30 years. The percentage of female OB/GYNs has increased. Fewer new graduates chose obstetrics and gynecology, the withdrawal rate HIF-1�� pathway of current OB/GYNs decreased, and their average age (50.8 years)

increased. The trend in withdrawal rates did not differ significantly among the generations.\n\nConclusions: The gravest problem in the OB/GYNs workforce is the continued decline in newly graduated OB/GYNs. Improvements in working conditions and job satisfaction are considered vital.”
“AIM: To investigate the chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Angelica sinensis and their anticoagulative and antibiotic activities. METHODS: The

constituents of the 80% ethanol extract were isolated and purified by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were identified by the physicochemical characteristic and spectral data. The anticoagulative activity of the isolated compounds were tested using the thrombin time method assay, and the MLN8237 concentration antibiotic activity were tested using the serial two-fold dilution method. RESULTS: Thirteen known compounds were isolated and identified as 24, 24-dimethyl-9,19-cyclolanostan-3 beta-ol (1), beta-sitosterol (2), 2, 3, 6-trimethylbenzoic acid (3), uracil (4), daucosterol (5), hyperoside (6), allantoin (7), D-mannitol (8), 1S-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol (9), caffeic acid (10), chlorogenic acid (11), sucrose (12) and D-glucose (13). Compounds 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11. moderately prolonged thrombin time. Compounds 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9 significantly inhibited the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila. CONCLUSION: Compounds 1, 3, 6-9 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 are the important active constituents of the aerial parts of Angelica sinensis.”
“Litter decomposition is strongly controlled by litter quality, but the composition of litter mixtures and potential interactions with live plants through root activity may also influence decomposers.

US had universally high sensitivity and

specificity when

US had universally high sensitivity and

specificity when the appendix was clearly identified. Other diagnostic modalities should be considered when the appendix is not definitively visualized by US. (C) 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency FK866 in vivo Medicine”
“During vertebrate craniofacial development, neural crest cells (NCCs) contribute much of the cartilage, bone and connective tissue that make up the developing head. Although the initial patterns of NCC segmentation and migration are conserved between species, the variety of vertebrate facial morphologies that exist indicates that a complex interplay occurs between intrinsic genetic NCC programs and extrinsic environmental signals during morphogenesis. Here, we review recent work that has begun to shed light on the molecular mechanisms

that govern the spatiotemporal patterning of NCC-derived skeletal structures – advances that are central to understanding craniofacial development and its evolution.”
“Endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. While signals mediated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta have been implicated in EndMT, the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we examined the effects of TGF-beta signals on the EndMT of mouse pancreatic microvascular endothelial cells (MS-1). By addition of TGF-beta 2, MS-1 cells underwent mesenchymal transition characterized by re-organization of actin stress fibre and increased expression of various mesenchymal markers such as alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) through activation of Rho signals. Whereas Acalabrutinib cost activation of Rho signals via TGF-beta-induced non-Smad signals has been implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we found that Arhgef5, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is induced by Smad signals and contributes to the TGF-beta 2-induced alpha-SMA expression in MS-1 cells. We also found

that TGF-beta 2 induces the expression of myocardin-related Ispinesib transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) in a Smad-dependent fashion and its nuclear accumulation in MS-1 cells and that MRTF-A is required and sufficient for TGF-beta 2-induced alpha-SMA expression. These results indicate that activation of Smad signals by TGF-beta 2 have dual effects on the activation of Rho signals and MRTF-A leading to the mesenchymal transition of MS-1 endothelial cells.”
“In multicentre trials, randomisation is often carried out using permuted blocks stratified by centre. It has previously been shown that stratification variables used in the randomisation process should be adjusted for in the analysis to obtain correct inference. For continuous outcomes, the two primary methods of accounting for centres are fixed-effects and random-effects models. We discuss the differences in interpretation between these two models and the implications that each pose for analysis.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological responses of

The purpose of this study was to evaluate biological responses of new water-dispersible silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) stabilized by Ag-C sigma-bonds in cultured Screening Library ic50 murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) using cell viability and morphological analyses. For RAW264.7, Ag-NPs seemed to induce cytotoxicity that was dependent on the Ag-NP concentration. However, no cytotoxic effects were observed in the MC3T3-E1 cell line. In microscopic analysis, Ag-NPs were taken

up by MC3T3-E1 cells with only minor cell morphological changes, in contrast to RAW264.7 cells, in which particles aggregated in the cytoplasm and vesicles. The ability of endocytosis of macrophages may induce harmful effects due to expansion of cell vesicles compared to osteoblast-like cells with their lower uptake of Ag-NPs.”
“The vaccine safety surveillance system effectively detected a very rare adverse event, narcolepsy, in subjects receiving AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the European inactivation/ purification protocol. The reports of increased cases of narcolepsy in non-vaccinated subjects infected with wild A(H1N1) pandemic influenza

virus suggest a role for the viral antigen(s) in disease development. However, additional investigations are needed to better understand what factor(s) in wild influenza Selleckchem AG-881 infection trigger(s) narcolepsy in susceptible hosts. An estimated 31 million doses of European AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine were used in more than 47 countries. The Canadian AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine was used with high coverage in Canada where an estimated 12 million doses were administered. As no similar narcolepsy association has been reported to date with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine made using the Canadian inactivation/purification protocol, this suggests that the AS03 adjuvant alone may not be responsible for the narcolepsy association. To date, no

narcolepsy association has been reported with the MF59 (R)-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine. This review article provides a brief background on narcolepsy, outlines the different types of vaccine preparations including Lonafarnib in vitro the ones for influenza, reviews the accumulated evidence for the safety of adjuvants, and explores the association between autoimmune diseases and natural infections. It concludes by assimilating the historical observations and recent clinical studies to formulate a feasible hypothesis on why vaccine-associated narcolepsy may not be solely linked to the AS03 adjuvant but more likely be linked to how the specific influenza antigen component of the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine was prepared. Careful and long-term epidemiological studies of subjects who developed narcolepsy in association with AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1) pandemic vaccine prepared with the European inactivation/purification protocol are needed. (c) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Treatment with endoscopic

Treatment with endoscopic Cyclosporin A third ventriculostomy improved his symptoms. We review the literature regarding this unusual presentation of an otherwise common condition.”
“We report a 4-month-old boy with seizure,

a 1-day history of fever, and a generalized maculopapular rash on the trunk and limbs. In very young children, acute chikungunya infection can mimic Kawasaki disease, and its prompt diagnosis, particularly in an endemic area like Singapore, may avoid the administration of costly and unnecessary intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.”
“Background/purpose\n\nAge perception is based on a number of facial attributes such as wrinkles, skin gravity effects, feature lines, and skin optical appearance. The colorimetric and optical diffusion properties of skin have been compared with the consumer interpretation of ‘skin age’ of cheek area pictures without wrinkles or feature lines.\n\nMethods\n\nControlled lighting images

of skin were taken with the Visia CR. Skin sections from the cheek area were selected without eye region wrinkles or https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ipi-145-ink1197.html naso-labial lines for consumer interpretation. These same skin sections were analyzed for optical roughness and colorimetric parameters in the LCH color space, by distinguishing several roughness parameters according to their physical scale.\n\nResults\n\nThree main optical parameters of skin were found to influence the consumer’s interpretation of skin ‘visual age’: the chroma (color saturation), lightness, and the local light-diffusing ability of skin. For the chroma and lightness, mainly large-scale inhomogeneities in the 0.8-2

cm-1 range are taken into account by the consumer. Surprisingly, variations in the skin hue show a total absence of correlation with the consumer grading.”
“The human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein pUL37x1 induces the release of Ca2+ stores from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. This release C alpha uses reorganization of the cellular actin cytoskeleton with concomitant cell rounding. Here we demonstrate that pUL37x1 activates Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha). Both PKC alpha and Rho-associated protein kinases LB-100 nmr are required for actin reorganization and cell rounding; however, only PKC alpha is required for the efficient production of virus progeny, arguing that HCMV depends on the kinase for a second function. PKC alpha activation is also needed for the production of large (1-5 mu m) cytoplasmic vesicles late after infection. The production of these vesicles is blocked by inhibition of fatty acid or phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate biosynthesis, and the failure to produce vesicles is correlated with substantially reduced production of enveloped virus C alpha psids.

Secondly, gene expression profiling revealed numerous differentia

Secondly, gene expression profiling revealed numerous differentially expressed genes indicating apoptosis induction after DCL/DCLK-long knockdown in NB cells. Finally, apoptosis was confirmed by time-lapse imaging of phosphatidylserine translocation, caspase-3 activation, live/dead double staining assays, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Together, our results suggest that learn more silencing DCL/DCLK-long induces apoptosis in NB cells. Endocrine-Related Cancer (2010) 17 399-414″
“The accurate and rapid identification of bacteria isolated from the respiratory tract of patients

with cystic fibrosis (CF) is critical in epidemiological studies, during intrahospital outbreaks, for patient treatment, and for determination of BKM120 therapeutic options. While the most common organisms isolated from sputum samples are Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, in recent decades an increasing fraction of CF patients has been colonized by other nonfermenting (NF) gram-negative rods, such as Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ralstonia pickettii, Acinetobacter spp., and Achromobacter

spp. In the present study, we developed a novel strategy for the rapid identification of NF rods based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with artificial neural networks (ANNs). A total of 15 reference strains and 169 clinical isolates of NF gram-negative bacteria recovered from sputum selleck screening library samples from 150 CF patients were used in this study. The clinical isolates were identified according to the guidelines for clinical microbiology practices for respiratory tract specimens from CF patients; and particularly, BCC bacteria were further identified

by recA-based PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HaeIII, and their identities were confirmed by recA species-specific PCR. In addition, some strains belonging to genera different from BCC were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A standardized experimental protocol was established, and an FTIR spectral database containing more than 2,000 infrared spectra was created. The ANN identification system consisted of two hierarchical levels. The top-level network allowed the identification of P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Acinetobacter spp., R. pickettii, and BCC bacteria with an identification success rate of 98.1%. The second-level network was developed to differentiate the four most clinically relevant species of BCC, B. cepacia, B. multivorans, B. cenocepacia, and B. stabilis (genomovars I to IV, respectively), with a correct identification rate of 93.8%.