Analysis were done using Fisher Exact t test and Chi square test

Analysis were done using Fisher Exact t test and Chi square test.\n\nMean gestational age was 34.87(3.86) wk and 33.7(3.29) wk in the test and control groups respectively, while mean BW was 2186.02(814.57) g and 1851.2(592.93) g in each respective group. In the test group 10 were symptomatic, 5 were on mechanical ventilation, 8 were on CPAP and one was

post-operation case. Difference in the incidence of significant RI in test and control group was not statistically significant. Incidence between various group of neonates in test group showed no statistical significance either. However, the incidence of grade IV reflux in test group was 8/24 and control 0/10 and this difference was statistically significant. Reflux did increase when period of gestation decreased and the difference was statistically significant.\n\nClinically significant grade IV GER was more in high risk (test) neonates than control.”
“Well-defined temperature-responsive Erastin check details polymers were covalently conjugated to model proteins by two consecutive Michael addition thiol-ene reactions. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) prepared by

reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was aminolyzed to yield thiol-terminated chains that were subsequently reacted with excess 1,8-bis-maleimidodiethyleneglycol. The resulting maleimide-terminated polymer was reacted with bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin to yield polymer protein conjugates by a “grafting-to” approach. The thermoresponsive nature of PNIPAM was conferred to the conjugate, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering analysis that indicated the formation of intermolecular aggregates at elevated temperatures.”
“Acute and chronic Selleckchem Fedratinib toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied

in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H.

Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the wome

Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B-1 and B-6, although this was not always related to increased values of corresponding activity coefficients.”
“Lymph node status is a key indicator of the best approach to treatment of invasive breast cancer. However, the accuracy with which lymph node metastasis is diagnosed is not currently satisfactory. New and more reliable methods that enable one to know who has a greater potential for lymph node metastasis would be highly desirable. We previously reported that lymph node involvement in esophageal and lung cancer may have a genetic component:

C-reactive VX-809 nmr protein (CRP) 1846C bigger

than T genetic polymorphism. Here we examined the diagnostic value of CRP 1846C bigger than T polymorphism for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis in cases of invasive breast cancer. The study participants were 185 women with invasive breast cancer who underwent curative GSI-IX datasheet surgery with lymph node dissection. Using DNA from blood samples and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, the utility of CRP genetic 1846C bigger than T polymorphism (rs1205) for assessing the risk of lymph node metastasis was evaluated. Fifty-two (28 %) patients had lymph node metastasis. After the patients were divided into two groups based on their CRP 1846 genotypes (C/C + C/T and T/T), the clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups, but there was a significantly greater incidence of lymph node metastasis among patients in the T/T group. Moreover, the odds ratio for lymph node involvement in patients carrying the 1846 T/T genotype was more than 2.2 in multivariate logistic regression models. CRP genetic polymorphism may be a novel predictor of the risk of lymph node metastasis in invasive breast cancer.”
“Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) protect microorganisms from environmental threats by producing diverse siderophores, antibiotics,

and other peptide natural products. Their modular molecular structure is also attractive from the standpoint of biosynthetic engineering. Here we evaluate a methodology for swapping module specificities of these mega-enzymes that takes advantage of www.selleckchem.com/products/pp2.html flavodoxin-like subdomains involved in substrate recognition. Nine subdomains encoding diverse specificities were transplanted into the Phe-specific GrsA initiation module of gramicidin S synthetase. All chimeras could be purified as soluble protein. One construct based on a Val-specific subdomain showed sizable adenylation activity and functioned as a Val-Pro diketopiperazine synthetase upon addition of the proline-specific GrsB1 module. These results suggest that subdomain swapping could be a viable alternative to previous NRPS design approaches targeting binding pockets, domains, or entire modules.

In conclusion, the presented study indicates that using sucrose p

In conclusion, the presented study indicates that using sucrose produces scaffolds showing better pore interconnectivity and cell infiltration than scaffolds made by using a salt process. In addition, in vivo experiments showed that hydroxyapatite accelerates bone reconstruction on implanted scaffolds. Accordingly, our scaffold will be expected to have a useful application in

bone 4SC-202 reconstruction. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Benzimidazole and indane are the two key fragments in our potent and selective MCH-1 receptor (MCHR1) antagonists. To identify novel linkers connecting the two fragments, we investigated diamino-cycloalkane-derived analogs and discovered highly potent antagonists with cis-1,4-diaminocyclohexane as a unique spacer in this chemical class. Structural overlay suggested that cis-1-substituted-4-aminocyclohexane functions as a bioisostere of 4-substituted-piperidine and that the active conformation

adopts a U-shaped orientation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: VX-689 cell line Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter, while gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is a predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. This GABA-glutamate imbalance is thought to play a role in the development of anxiety. Acamprosate calcium is thought to restore this chemical imbalance in alcohol withdrawal.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To examine acamprosate calcium as augmentation therapy for treatment of anxiety.\n\nMETHODS: This 8-week, open-label study was designed to evaluate patients with anxiety who were stable on current medications (selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake selleck kinase inhibitor inhibitors) but still symptomatic. Acamprosate

was dosed at 1998 mg/day. Assessments included the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.\n\nRESULTS: Thirteen patients enrolled in the study and received study medication. Acamprosate reduced anxiety symptoms (mean HAM-A score reduction to 8.87 from a baseline of 20). Sixty-two percent of patients receiving acamprosate achieved remission (HAM-A score <= 7). Modal dose was 1998 mg/day (range 999-1998). The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (n = 1), gastrointestinal upset (n = 1), and increased dream activity (n = 1).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Acamprosate calcium may be effective augmentation therapy in patients with treatment-resistant anxiety.”
“Background: In a previous study, latitude was positively associated with EpiPen prescription rates.\n\nObjective: To determine whether a similar geographic difference exists for emergency department (ED) visits for acute allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis).\n\nMethods: We combined National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data for ED visits to noninstitutional hospitals from 1993 to 2005. Acute allergic reactions were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 995.

0) were significantly correlated with each other, and thus reliab

0) were significantly correlated with each other, and thus reliable assessment methods to determine cutaneous ADRs. (Ann Dermatol 23(4) 432 similar to 438, 2011)”
“The high electric field transport properties namely, hot electron energy loss rate P, momentum loss rate Q, electron temperature T-e and drift velocity V-d are studied theoretically in a bilayer graphene (BLG) by employing the momentum and energy balance technique. P and Q are investigated as a function of Te by considering the electron interaction with the acoustic phonons (APs) AS1842856 manufacturer and the surface polar phonons (SPPs).

In the Bloch-Gruneisen regime P (Q) due to APs is similar to T-e(4) (T-e(2.5)), with a new feature of a kink appearing due to the chiral nature of the electrons. The predicted T-e(4) is consistent with the recent experimental observation of heat resistance (Yan et al. Nature Nanotechnology 3 (2012) 472 [351). Hot phonon effect is taken into account for SPPs. A dip has been observed in the hot phonon distribution of SPPs, a new feature, which is not found in conventional two-dimensional electron gas, and this can be attributed to the chiral nature of the electrons. P (Q) due to SPPs is found to be dominant at about T-e > 150 (180) K for a lattice temperature T=4.2 K. It is observed

that the hot phonon effect is found HDAC inhibition to reduce P and Q due to SPPs significantly. T-e and V-d are calculated as a function of the electric field E by taking into account the additional channels for momentum relaxation due to Coulomb impurity (Cl) and short-range disorder (SD). T-e is found to increase with the increasing electric field and is significantly enhanced by the hot phonon effect. Low field Vd is found to be limited by Cl, SD and APs and in the high field region it reaches a near saturation value. The hot phonon effect tends to reduce the value of V-d. The presence of disorders CI and SD reduces V-d significantly and in clean samples larger saturation velocity can be achieved at a relatively smaller E. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Soda-anthraquinone kenaf bast pulp (12.5 kappa number and 32% ISO brightness)

has been bleached with multi stage peroxide bleaching process. Bleaching process was carried out in different sequences of peroxide stage without and with activator (tetraacetylethylenediamine, Alvocidib cost TAED) to about 80% ISO brightness. Full bleached pulp production with high brightness and viscosity and also, low chemical oxygen demand (COD) and no adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in effluent are the aims of this study. The effects of temperature, retention time, chemical charges, TAED/peroxide ratio and alkalinity have been studied in order to maximize the brightness gain at the lowest viscosity loss. H2O2 was activated as bleaching agent under milder conditions, such as low alkalinity or low temperature, by TAED activator. Therefore, TAED charge caused to an improvement in viscosity, pulp yield and effluent COD load.

Preserved functions and structures related to movement and advant

Preserved functions and structures related to movement and advantages in interpersonal interactions, public services and healthy policies could be used to guide therapy and to prevent rehospitalisation commonly observed in chronic stroke survivals.”
“Introduction: The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling pathway is known to control human breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the zebrafish xenograft assay is a robust and dependable animal model learn more for examining the role of pharmacological modulators and genetic

perturbation of TGF-beta signalling in human breast tumour cells. Methods: We injected cancer cells into the embryonic circulation (duct of cuvier) and examined their invasion and metastasis into the avascular collagenous tail. Various aspects of the TGF-beta signalling pathway were blocked by chemical inhibition, small interfering RNA (siRNA), or small hairpin RNA (shRNA). PRIMA-1MET in vivo Analysis was conducted using fluorescent microscopy. Results: Breast cancer cells with different levels

of malignancy, according to in vitro and in vivo mouse studies, demonstrated invasive and metastatic properties within the embryonic zebrafish model that nicely correlated with their differential tumourigenicity in mouse models. Interestingly, MCF10A M2 and M4 cells invaded into the caudal hematopoietic tissue and were visible as a cluster of cells, whereas MDA MB 231 cells invaded into the tail fin and were visible as individual cells. Pharmacological inhibition with TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitors or tumour specific Smad4 knockdown disturbed invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish xenograft model and closely mimicked the results we obtained with these cells in a mouse metastasis model. Inhibition of matrix metallo proteinases, which are induced by TGF-beta in breast cancer cells, blocked invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Conclusions: The zebrafish-embryonic breast cancer xenograft model is applicable for the mechanistic understanding, screening and development of anti-TGF-beta

drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in a timely and cost-effective manner.”
“Background The effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) are inconclusive in current studies. Moreover, the most appropriate composition of PUFA EPZ-6438 mw to play the protective role is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the protective role of PUFA on POAF and the most appropriate composition. Methods Studies were identified through PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, reviews and reference lists of relevant papers. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated for POAF. Statistical analyses were performed with Review. Manager 5.0. Results Eleven randomised controlled trials with 3137 patients were included in the analysis. The use of PUFA alone did not reduce the incidence of POAF compared with the control (OR: 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-1.03; P=0.08; I-2=52%).

Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and prote

Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and

provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can lie affected by body weight and composition, these physical Measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food find fluid should be consumed before, during, find after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Spoils beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes this website may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not needed if adequate energy to maintain body weight is consumed from a variety of foods, However, PXD101 chemical structure athletes who restrict energy intake, use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food groups from their diet. or consume unbalanced

diets with low BLZ945 in vivo micronutrient density may require supplements. Because regulations specific to nutritional ergogenic

aids are poorly enforced, they should be used with caution and only after careful product evaluation for safely, efficacy, potency, and legality. A qualified sports dietitian and, in particular, the Board Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics in the United States, should provide individualized nutrition direction and advice after a comprehensive nutrition assessment.”
“Background According to American Gastroenterological Association Institute criteria, the diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EOE) requires clinicopathological correlation. In the appropriate clinical context, a high eosinophil count (HEC, defined as >= 15/HPF) is considered pathological evidence of EOE. However, HEC may not always be identified in biopsies given its patchy distribution, and there may be histological overlap between EOE and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in the distal oesophagus.\n\nAims To evaluate the utility of subepithelial sclerosis and HEC in proximal oesophageal biopsies as additional diagnostic criteria.\n\nMethods Cases between 2004 and 2008 with paired proximal and distal oesophageal biopsies and the mention of eosinophils in the reports were retrieved from PathWest Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre archives. Biopsies were reviewed and assessed for eosinophilic count and presence of subepithelial stroma and sclerosis.

MRSA was most frequently isolated from the cloaca and nose shell

MRSA was most frequently isolated from the cloaca and nose shell and to a lesser extent from the skin

beneath the wing and the pharynx. The relative sensitivity of the different anatomical sites was, 44.4% for the cloaca, 33.3% for the nose shell, 16.7% for the skin beneath the wing and 5.6% for the pharynx. NU7441 ic50 Based upon these relative sensitivities combining cloaca and nose shell would increase the chance of MRSA detection. A rather low within flock prevalence of MRSA varying between 0% and 28% was detected in broilers, whereas in pigs on the same farms the within herd prevalence varied between 82% and 92%. No MRSA contamination in the direct barn environment of the broilers was found, this in contrast to the environment of the pigs, indicating a relationship between MRSA prevalence and contamination in the environment. Two farmers were continuously colonized, while the third one was only once. In conclusion, a major difference was seen in MRSA occurrence between broilers and pigs from the same farm. This may suggest that broilers AICAR molecular weight are naturally less susceptible to MRSA ST398 colonization than pigs. Conversely,

short production time in broilers, vacancy of the barn environment during one week and the higher frequency of disinfection might also explain the lower prevalence in broilers. The farmer may play an important role in the dissemination of MRSA from pigs to poultry, especially in mixed farms where pigs are highly colonized and may act as a reservoir for MRSA ST398 carriage in humans. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Calcium ions play important roles in the adaptation of auditory hair cells, and there is evidence that they are involved in modifying the sensitivity and adaptation of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate mechanoreceptors. However, there is little direct evidence concerning the concentration changes, www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyt387.html signaling pathways or ultimate effects of these proposed modulatory mechanisms. We measured receptor potential, receptor current

and action potentials intracellularly during mechanotransduction in a group of sensory neurons of the spider Cupiennius salei, which possesses low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Simultaneously, we elevated intracellular [Ca2+] by UV light release from cage molecules, and observed increases in [Ca2+] as changes in calcium-sensitive dye fluorescence. Increases of 10-15% in [Ca2+] caused reductions of approximately 40% in receptor potential and approximately 20% in receptor current. Mechanically evoked action potential firing caused much larger increases in [Ca2+], and the firing rate fell as [Ca2+] rose during mechanical stimulation. Release of caged calcium just before mechanical stimulation significantly reduced peak firing.

White men had significantly higher SAT than did African American

White men had significantly higher SAT than did African American men, but after adjustment for covariates, their SAT was lower than that of African American men.

Conclusions: Abdominal visceral adiposity is significantly greater in white

men and women. After adjustment for covariates, white men and women had significantly lower SAT than did African American men and women. The results of this study highlight the heterogeneity of human body fat distribution across BLZ945 price racial groups. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00959270. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 7-15.”
“Bacillus anthracis generates virulence factors such as lethal and edema toxins, capsule, and hemolytic proteins under conditions of reduced oxygenation. Here, we report on the acute cytotoxicity of culture supernatants

(Sups) of JNK-IN-8 in vivo six nonencapsulated B. anthracis strains grown till the stationary phase under static microaerobic conditions. Human small airway epithelial, umbilical vein endothelial, Caco-2, and Hep-G2 cells were found to be susceptible. Sups displayed a reduction of pH to 5.3-5.5, indicating the onset of acid anaerobic fermentation; however, low pH itself was not a major factor of toxicity. The pore-forming hemolysin, anthrolysin O (ALO), contributed to the toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Its effect was found to be synergistic with a metabolic product of B. anthracis, succinic acid. Cells exposed to Sups demonstrated cytoplasmic www.selleckchem.com/products/3-deazaneplanocin-a-dznep.html membrane blebbing, increased permeability, loss of ATP, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, and arrest of cell respiration. The toxicity was reduced by inhibition of ALO by cholesterol, decomposition of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of

mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase. Cell death appears to be caused by an acute primary membrane permeabilization by ALO, followed by a burst of reactive radicals from the mitochondria fuelled by the succinate, which is generated by bacteria in the hypoxic environment. This mechanism of metabolic toxicity is relevant to the late-stage conditions of hypoxia and acidosis found in anthrax patients and might operate at anatomical locations of the host deprived from oxygen supply.”
“Using In2O3 as a host matrix, extensive calculations based on density functional theory have been carried out to understand the electronic and magnetic properties of native defects, alkali and alkaline-earth metal substitutions as disputed in recent theoretical and experimental studies. Our calculations show that the magnetism in undoped In2O3 is originated from In vacancies (V-In) instead of O vacancies. The ferromagnetic (FM) coupling between the moments introduced by V-In is found strong enough to achieve room temperature ferromagnetism. Moreover, FM coupling is also strongly favored in alkali metal doping cases with negative formation energy.

In 2008, the above parameters, except for adiponectin, were measu

In 2008, the above parameters, except for adiponectin, were measured again in 381 children (202 boys and 179 girls) who participated. In 2006, 10.2% of the children were overweight (body mass index (BMI) >= 85th percentile), and after 2 years, an additional 3% became overweight. Compared with insulin and adiponectin, leptin was most highly associated with current and future BMI, and percent body fat. Boys in the highest tertile for initial leptin (T3) showed the highest

prevalence of overweight and metabolic risk scores among three leptin tertile groups. Girls showed the same trends as boys. High initial leptin levels could be predictive of greater future BMI and metabolic risk score (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: These results suggest that elevated serum leptin concentrations

among the childhood population could be a marker for future BMI and metabolic disorders. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The evaluation of the crude herbal FG-4592 chemical structure drug which eventually enters the pharmaceutical market is obviously of considerable importance. This operation involves the identification of the material and determination of its quality, purity and of adulterated nature of the adulterants. The present paper is based on the above objectives which confined to chemotaxonomic authentication of Cyprus rotundus L. (Nagar mootha) and its other similar species. Chemotaxonomic techniques including morphology, organoleptography, palynology, anatomy and phyto-chemical analysis were carried out in order to clarify the pharmaceutically important species of Cyperus that is Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus alopecuroides, Cyperus difformis and Cyperus niveus. AS1842856 supplier It is concluded from this study that the genuine source of herbal drug Nagar Mootha is C. rotundus

instead of other species. Such type of studies is the need of herbal industry to ensure validation process which applied in the manufacturing of https://www.selleckchem.com/products/pf-03084014-pf-3084014.html herbal medicines and phyto-pharmaceuticals. This will provide the credibility in the regulation and grown of pharmaceutically important herbal medicines for the foreseeable.”
“The radical oxidation of Ge(100) applying a dielectric barrier discharge plasma was investigated using metastable induced electron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The plasma treatments were performed in a pure oxygen atmosphere as well as under environmental conditions at room temperature. In both atmospheres GeO(2) layers up to thicknesses of several nm were formed on the Ge(100) surface. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3611416]“
“Background and aims: Maternal obesity and post-natal over-nutrition play an important role in programming glucose and lipid metabolism later in life. The aim of this study was to decipher the contributions of maternal obesity and post-natal over-nutrition on glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle.

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“The pu

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The purpose of this study was to investigate the histological changes that occur in rat soft and hard tissues after Er,Cr:YSGG laser surgery. Each of 20 rats was submitted to four procedures which were randomly distributed to the right and left sides of the animal: procedure 1 dorsal incision with a scalpel; procedure 2 dorsal incision with a 2.0-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser; procedure 3 skull defect created with a diamond bur; procedure 4 skull defect created with

a 3.0-W Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The animals were killed 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after surgery, and histological examinations were performed. The histometric analysis buy Pfizer Licensed Compound Library of the bone defects was evaluated using an unpaired t-test. Initially, the dorsum showed more histological signs of repair following procedure 1, although similar healing responses following procedures 1 and 2 were seen on day 30 after surgery. By day 30 the bone formation observed following procedure 4 was much more evident than following procedure 3. The unpaired t-test identified

significant differences in bone formation on day 30 (p = 0.01), whereas a greater bone percentage was seen following procedure 4 than following procedure 3 (79.96 +/- 10.30% and 58.23 +/- 9.99%, respectively). Thus, histological repair of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser wounds was similar to that of the scalpel wounds. However, skull defects created Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser showed greater bone formation than defects created with the bur. Within the limitations of this study, we can conclude that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser is a promising surgical instrument in vivo, particularly for bone surgery.”
“Background and objective:

Accurate staging at the time of diagnosis is very important in deciding on the appropriate treatment for cancer patients. click here FDG PET indicates metabolic changes in cancer cells, enabling the early detection of lesions. This has the advantage of allowing more accurate staging than is possible with conventional staging tools, and has led to the incorporation of FDG PET in the initial work-up protocols for lung cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the clinical impact of FDG PET as an initial staging tool, on the therapeutic management of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Patients diagnosed with NSCLC by histopathology were retrospectively identified and both chest CT and FDG PET were performed for initial staging. Information was collected regarding the results of conventional versus FDG PET staging, and any resulting modifications of treatment were evaluated.

Results: Among the 537 patients who were evaluated FDG PET resulted in upstaging of the tumour in 91 (17%) and downstaging of the tumour in 68 (13%). Consequently, therapeutic management was modified in 118 patients (22%). Furthermore, use of FDG PET resulted in the detection of a second primary cancer in six patients.