Data analyzed included signalment, grade of luxation, orthopedic

Data analyzed included signalment, grade of luxation, orthopedic comorbidities, surgical procedures performed, frequency and type of complications, and whether a second surgery was performed.

Results-A total of 36 dogs with 47 affected stifle joints met the inclusion criteria. Complications were recorded for 24 of 47 (51.1%) stifle joints; there were major complications for 18 of 47 (38.3%) stifle joints. All complications were confirmed through examination by a

veterinarian. The BMS-777607 concentration most frequent complication was reluxation, which was detected in 10 of 47 (21.3%) stifle joints. Dogs that underwent bilateral surgical repair during a single anesthetic episode had odds of reluxation that were 12.5 times the odds of reluxation for dogs that underwent unilateral surgical repair.

Conclusions Apoptosis Compound Library and Clinical Relevance-Complication rate after corrective surgery for LPL was high, with reluxation being the most common complication in this population of dogs. Performing staged bilateral surgeries may decrease the risk of reluxation.”
“We report results on the effect of a nonsharp and disordered potential in quantum well infrared

photodetectors (QWIP). Scanning electronic transmission microscopy is used to measure the alloy profile of the structure which is shown to present a gradient of composition along the growth axis. Those measurements are used as inputs to quantify the effect on the detector performance (peak wavelength, spectral broadening, and dark current). The influence of the random positioning of the doping is also studied. Finally we demonstrate that QWIP properties are quite robust with regard to the nonideality of the energy band profile. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3446093]“
“Anomalies, though rare, are potential restorative and endodontic challenges. This case report presents GDC-0973 supplier a unique case with a bizarre combination of anomalies, including single conical

unbifurcated posterior root forms, taurodontism, dens invaginatus, prominent labial lobes of the canines, pyramidal cusps of the premolars, dens evaginatii of the molar crowns, and localized reduction in tooth size involving the entire dentition without any other apparent systemic complication. On literature review, only 4 such cases were found to be reported. An accurate assessment of the presence of single conical unbifurcated posterior root forms was made with the help of spiral computerized tomography. This case report highlights the use of high-end diagnostic imaging modalities such as spiral computerized tomography in making a confirmatory diagnosis of the multiple morphologic abnormalities. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:e81-e86)”
“Objective-To evaluate factors associated with the outcome of vital pulp therapy (VPT) in dogs.

Design-Retrospective study.

Sample-190 teeth in 138 dogs.

Prevalence of 3-vessel disease was significantly higher in groups

Prevalence of 3-vessel disease was significantly higher in groups 3 and 4 compared with the other groups.

Conclusions The presence of angina pectoris was related to extensive CAD in patients with DM. The extent of CAD was not correlated with the type of angina (typical or atypical).”
“Treatment of 3-methyl-2-phenylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acid

with potassium tert-butoxide induced its isomerization into trans-2-methylidene-3-phenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid which was converted into methyl ester, and heating of the latter for 1 h in toluene gave methyl (E)-2-(2-phenylcyclopropylidene)acetate. Thermal isomerization of methyl (E)-2-(2-phenylcyclopropylidene)acetate on prolonged heating in toluene afforded 5-methoxy-3-methyl-2-phenylfuran, NCT-501 and the reaction with 1,3-diphenyl-2-benzofuran resulted in [4 + 2]-cycloaddition at the exocyclic double bond.”
“A growing beneficial reuse of biosolids in agriculture has led to concerns about potential contamination of water resources and the food

chain. In order to comprehend the potential risks of transmission of diseases to the human population, an advanced quantitative risk assessment is essential. This requires good quantitative data which is Currently limited due to the methodological limitations. Consequently, further development and standardization of methodologies for the detection, enumeration and viability assessment of pathogens in biosolids is required. There is a Paucity of information on the numbers and survival of enteric virus and protozoan pathogens of concern

in biosolids. There is a growing Fludarabine urgency for the identification of more reliable alternative indicators, both index and model microorganisms, which could be used for potential public health risk assessment. In this review, we have summarized reported literature on the numbers and fate of enteric pathogens ABT-263 solubility dmso and indicators in biosolids. The advantages and limitations of the use of conventional and alternative index and model microorganisms for the prediction of pathogen presence in biosolids are also discussed. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular events.

Hypothesis Atorvastatin may improve endothelial dysfunction (ED) in the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with premature CAD with ED.

Methods Thirty-five FDRs (median age, 52 years [interquartile range (IQR), 46-57 years], 21 male) of patients with premature CAD with ED were recruited in a prospective trial with a crossover double-blind design: 6 weeks of treatment with atorvastatin 40 mg/day followed by placebo, or vice versa. After each treatment, the digital pulse wave amplitude was determined by EndoPAT to obtain the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), a measure for endothelial function.

Background: Titrating propofol administration using BIS reduces i

Background: Titrating propofol administration using BIS reduces its requirement and shortens the recovery from anesthesia in adults. However, there

is still mixed evidence for utility of anesthesia depth monitors in reducing anesthesia requirement in children.

Methods/Materials: A prospective randomized study was conducted in 50 ASA I children of 2-12 years, randomly assigned into standard practice (SP) or BIS group. After induction with propofol, anesthesia was maintained with 150 mu propofol infusion. The propofol infusion rate selleck compound was altered by 20 mu to maintain the systolic blood pressure within 20% of the baseline (SP group) or BIS value between 45 and 60 (BIS group). The rate of propofol infusion was reduced

by 50% about 15 min before the end of surgery. The amount of propofol used and the times from stopping the propofol infusion to eye opening, extubation, response to commands and attaining Steward score of 6 were recorded.

Results: There was no evidence of a difference in the mean propofol consumption in the two groups (BIS 232.6 +/- 136.7 mg, SP 250.8 +/- 118.2 mg). The intraoperative hemodynamics and BIS values were similar in the two groups. There was no evidence for a difference between groups in the mean times from termination of anesthetic to eye opening, extubation, response to commands and to achieve a Steward Recovery score of 6.

Conclusions: Our study showed no benefit of BIS-guided propofol administration on anesthetic consumption or recovery

compared to standard anesthetic practice.”
“Randomised controlled MK-0518 cell line trials (RCTs) in surgery are complex to design and conduct and face unique challenges compared to trials in other specialties. The appropriate selection, measurement and reporting of outcomes are one aspect that requires attention. Outcomes in surgical RCTs are often ill-defined, inconsistent and at high risk of bias in their assessment and historically, there has been an undue focus on short-term outcomes and adverse events meaning the value of trial results for clinical practice and decision-making is limited.

This review addresses three key problems with surgical trial outcomes-choosing the right outcomes for the trial design and purpose, selecting relevant outcomes to measure from the range of possible outcomes, and measuring outcomes with minimal risk of bias. Each obstacle is discussed in turn, highlighting some suggested solutions and current initiatives working towards improvements in these areas. Some examples of good practice in this field are also discussed.

Many of the historical problems with surgical trial outcomes may be overcome with an increased understanding of the trial design and purpose and recognition that pragmatic trials require assessments of outcomes that are patient-centred in addition to measurement of short-term outcomes.

8% compared with 8 9%, p = 0 8)

Conclusions: On the b

8% compared with 8.9%, p = 0.8).

Conclusions: On the basis on this review, the reduction of high-grade spondylolisthesis potentially improves overall spine biomechanics by correcting the local

kyphotic deformity selleck kinase inhibitor and reducing vertebral slippage. Reduction was not associated with a greater risk of developing neurologic deficits compared with arthrodesis in situ. Both procedures were associated with good clinical outcomes.”
“We report phase transitions from ferroelectric to paraelectric states that are induced in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) by electric field cycles. The transitions are systematically characterized electrically and structurally by using ferroelectric capacitors. The top electrodes of the LDK378 chemical structure capacitors can be peeled off from the surfaces of ferroelectric layers; this enables us to obtain clear x-ray diffraction patterns with adequate strength. The diffraction patterns clearly indicate the emergence of the stable phase, in which copolymer molecules are aligned with their b-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The dipoles become nonswitchable without changing the molecular structure. The new field-cycle-induced

phase, which has high permittivity in the out-of-plane direction due to anisotropic molecular structures, is identified as the main mechanism of polarization fatigue. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3429079]“
“The polymerizations of N,N’-bismaleimide-4,4′-diphenylmethane (BMI) initiated by barbituric acid (BTA) carried out in a variety of solvents at 130 degrees C were studied. The nitrogen-containing cyclic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone acted as a catalyst to promote the formation of the three-dimensional crosslinked network structure. By contrast, the polymerization in a cyclic solvent that did not contain nitrogen such as gamma-butyrolactone resulted in nil gel content. The higher the solvent basicity, the larger the amount of insoluble polymer species formed. The molar ratio

of BTA to BMI also played an important role in the polymerizations. ABT-263 Apoptosis inhibitor The resultant polymers, presumably having a hyper-branched structure, exhibited much narrower molecular weight distributions than those prepared by conventional free radical polymerizations. The BMI polymerizations using BTA as the initiator could not be adequately described by conventional free radical polymerization mechanisms. A polymerization mechanism that took into account the generation of a ketone radical pair between BTA and BMI and the subsequent initiation, propagation and termination reactions was proposed. It was concluded that the nitrogen-containing cyclic solvents were capable of participating in the ketone radical pair formation process, thereby increasing the extent of polymer crosslinking reactions. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 117: 596-603, 2010″

Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which plays a significant role in the patho

Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of MM, also regulates DNA methylation. However, attempts to bring IL-6 blockade to the clinic have had limited success. We hypothesize that IL-6 regulation of hypermethylation may be an important pathway leading to rational chemotherapeutic/anti-IL-6 combinations. We first studied the correlation of IL-6 expression and find more dependence in MM cell lines: U266B1, RPMI8226, and KAS6/1. We confirmed that KAS6/1 is IL-6-dependent whereas U266B1 and RPMI8226 cells are IL-6-independent and that blocking IL-6 inhibited the growth of U266B1 (36% inhibition;

p<0.05) and KAS6/1 (68% inhibition; p<0.01), but not JNK-IN-8 the RPMI8226 cells. Using RT-PCR, we showed that U266B1 cells express IL-6, but RPMI8226 and KAS6/1 cells do not. This IL-6 expression pattern correlates with the anti-IL-6 inhibition findings. To correlate IL-6 sensitivity with hypermethylation of TSG, we investigated promoter methylation of CDH1 and DcR1. We found that the promoter of DcR1 and CDH1

is methylated in U266B1 cells and un-methylated in RPMI8226 cells. Furthermore, the DcR1 promoter was un-methylated in KAS6/1 cells. These data support our hypothesis that an IL-6-dependent pathway may regulate hypermethylation of TSG in MM. Newer chemotherapeutic agents that affect methylation are being studied in combination with IL-6 blockade.”
“Ni(0.6)Cu(0.2)Zn(0.2)Fe(2)O(4) powder was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure was found to be a cubic spinel with the lattice constant alpha(0) of 8.373 angstrom and internal structure parameter (x) of the oxygen was 0.254. Ni and Cu ions in NiCuZn ferrite prefer octahedral sites B and Zn ions prefer tetrahedral sites A. Based on the distribution probability, we have analyzed Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K as 5 sets with six-lines. Hyperfine fields DZNeP clinical trial of A and B sites at 4.2 K in zero magnetic field were H(hf)(B(0)) = 547 kOe, H(hf)(B(1)) = 532 kOe, H(hf)(B(2)) = 519 kOe, H(hf)(B(3)) = 491 kOe, and H(hf)(A) = 507 kOe.

Applied-field Mossbauer spectra of the Ni(0.6)Cu(0.2)Zn(0.2)Fe(2)O(4) were measured with external field under 50 kOe, parallel to the incident gamma-ray at 4.2 K. The hyperfine field H(hf)(A) of A sites under 50 kOe was 521 kOe, larger than that under no applied-field. At B site the average value of hyperfine field < H(hf()B)> was 447 kOe, smaller than < H(hf)(B)> = 522 kOe under no applied-field. Also, we noticed that the second and fifth absorption lines of Mossbauer spectra completely disappeared above 10 kOe, indicating that the spins of Fe ions at A and B sites were collinear to the applied-field. The Fe valence state was determined to be ferric from the isomer shift values. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.


data reveal potential therapeutic efficacy and cand


data reveal potential therapeutic efficacy and candidate molecular targets for Fu Zhuan Tea. and provide rationale for chemical characterization of bioactive fractions and investigation of therapeutic efficacy in cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights Cl-amidine reserved.”
“The Biofilm (BF) building capacity of different serotypes of Salmonella enterica derived from the poultry farm environment was investigated. Starting point for the investigation was the question if farm-isolated Salmonella serotypes with high importance for poultry meat and egg production are capable of forming a BF under defined laboratory conditions. Several isolates from click here different stages of the production cycle were chosen and compared to laboratory grown strains of the same serotype. BF building capacity was analyzed in a 96-well format during a time period of 2 days. Pulse field gel electrophoresis was used to establish

a relationship between different isolates. The BF building capacity of a monospecies BF was strongly dependent on the temperature used for incubation. Results indicated further that certain farm isolates were capable of forming BF under laboratory conditions, whereas laboratory grown strains were not. Considerable differences between different field serovars and within one serovar exist. In conclusion, the BF building capacity of poultry-derived isolates is a function of adaptation to their host environment. Thus, the control of BF as a reservoir for Salmonella in the farm environment is of crucial importance for the overall improvement of food safety. Mechanical and substance-based approaches for this control exist in several variations, but overall decontamination success is difficult to achieve

and needs to be especially adapted to the farm environment.”
“A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System Selleck Crenigacestat (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system.

The effects of the reflectance of the back contact coupled to a c

The effects of the reflectance of the back contact coupled to a conductive optical spacer on the absorption are also discussed. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3506702]“
“This article addresses some of the questions relating to how hepatitis delta virus (HDV), an agent so far unique in the animal world, might have

arisen. HDV was discovered in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). It generally makes HBV infections more damaging to the liver. It is a subviral satellite agent that depends upon HBV envelope proteins for its assembly and ability Angiogenesis inhibitor to infect new cells. In other aspects of replication, HDV is both independent of and very different from HBV. In addition, the small single-stranded circular RNA genome of HDV, and its mechanism of replication, demonstrate an increasing number of similarities to the viroids – a large family of helper-independent subviral agents that cause pathogenesis in plants.”
“The Italian Standards for LB-100 cell line the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus represent a consensus document of the two Italian scientific diabetes societies (AMD and SID), providing specific recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and its complications. The level of scientific evidence behind every recommendation has been classified in accordance with the National Guidelines Plan.

An original processing

system was employed: the document prepared by the Editorial Team was published online for 20 days, and the suggestions and criticisms of

about 30 persons were evaluated and integrated to those provided by a panel of diabetologists and members of other healthcare professions dedicated to diabetes care, as well as lay members. Lastly, the document was approved by AMD and SID National Steering Committees.

In this version, some highlights of the full document (; concerning the main and most representative recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of Tozasertib in vitro diabetes and its complications as well as on diabetes care in some specific contexts, are reported. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Metal-graphene contact is a key interface in graphene-based device applications, and it is known that two types of interfaces are formed between metal and graphene. In this paper, we apply first-principles calculations to twelve metal-graphene interfaces and investigate the detailed interface atomic and electronic structures of physisorption and chemisorption interfaces. For physisorption interfaces (Ag, Al, Cu, Cd, Ir, Pt, and Au), Fermi level pinning and Pauli-exclusion-induced energy-level shifts are shown to be two primary factors determining graphene’s doping types and densities. For chemisorption interfaces (Ni, Co, Ru, Pd, and Ti), the combination of Pauli-exclusion-induced energy-level shifts and hybridized states’ repulsive interactions lead to a band gap opening with metallic gap states.

The liquid C-13-NMR analysis indicated that methylolureas had the

The liquid C-13-NMR analysis indicated that methylolureas had the dominant content in MMU with the reaction between urea and formaldehyde Under the alkaline condition. The PUF cocondensed resins had no free formaldehyde. methylolureas were well incorporated into the cocondensed resins by reacting with phenolic units to form cocondensed methylene bridges.

The second formaldehyde influenced the further reaction and the structure of the PUF resins. The resins with the prepared method of PUFB possessed relatively high degree of polymerization and low proportion of unreacted methylol groups. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112: 2195-2202, 2009″
“Background Hypertrophic DNA Damage inhibitor and contracture scars are common problems after burn injuries and cause functional and cosmetic deformities. A wide variety of treatments has been advocated for postburn selleckchem pathologic scars regression. Unfortunately, the reported efficacy has been variable.

Objectives To investigate the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT), which mainly targets the fibroblasts in scar tissue, as an effective modality for scar treatment in burn patients.

Materials and Methods An experimental study with ESWT was performed in 16 patients with postburn scars contractures, hypertrophic

scars, or keloids twice a week for 6 weeks. Digital photographs were obtained and visual analogue scales were completed before and after treatment. Results Already after the first session, scars appeared more pliable, and color mismatch was less evident. At the end of the study period, all treated scars obtained a more acceptable appearance.

Conclusions Extracorporeal shock wave therapy is a feasible

and cost-effective treatment in the management of postburn pathologic scars.”
“Study Design. Controlled clinical study.

Objective. To compare muscle and platelet calmodulin and melatonin concentrations of scoliotic and nonscoliotic populations.

Summary of Background Data. Melatonin and A-1210477 nmr calmodulin are potential key molecules in scoliosis etiology. Calmodulin is not only a second messenger of melatonin but also has been shown to have effects on muscle contractility. There is a possibility that it may be of importance in the regulation of spinal alignment. Platelets have been defined as mini muscles calmodulin and melatonin levels of which may be the projections of muscle values.

Methods. Twenty patients undergoing posterior surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and 9 thoracic-lumbar trauma patients undergoing posterior surgery constituted the population. Autologous bloods were collected and processed to obtain platelets. Paravertebral muscle tissue samples from both sides were obtained at T12-L1 level intraoperatively.

Historically, paediatric oncology patients admitted to an intensi

Historically, paediatric oncology patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) have had extremely poor outcomes.

We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 3-year period in a single centre to evaluate the outcomes for this particularly vulnerable group of patients admitted to a paediatric ICU.

Fifty-five patients were admitted a total of 66 times to the ICU during the study period. The mortality

rate of this group was 23% compared with an overall ICU mortality rate of 5%. 11/15 patients who died had an underlying haematological Rigosertib clinical trial malignancy. Twenty-eight percent of children with organism-identified sepsis died.

While mortality rates for paediatric oncology patients admitted to a ICU have improved, they are still substantial. Those with a haematological malignancy or GW-572016 concentration admitted with sepsis are most at risk.”
“Study Design. The assessment of sacrum angular motions and stress across sacroiliac joint (SIJ) articular surfaces using finite element lumbar spine-pelvis model and simulated posterior fusion surgical procedures.

Objective. To quantify the increase in sacrum angular motions and stress across SIJ as

a function of fused lumbar spine using finite element lumbar spine-pelvis model.

Summary of Background Data. A review of the literature suggests that for 20% to 30% of spine surgery patients, failed back surgery syndrome as a possible complication. The SIJ might be a contributing factor in failed back surgery syndrome in 29% to 40% of cases. The exact pathomechanism which

leads to SIJ pain generation is not well understood. We hypothesized that lumbar spine fusion leads to increased motion or stresses at the SIJ; this alone could be a trigger of the pain syndrome.

Methods. A finite element model of the lumbar spine-pelvis was used to simulate the posterior fusion at L4-L5, L4-S1, and L5-S1 levels. The magnitude of the sacrum SBE-β-CD chemical structure angular motion and average of stresses across SIJ articular surfaces were compared with intact model in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation motions.

Results. The computed sacrum angular motions in intact spine, after L4-L5, L5-S1, and L4-S1 fusion gradually increased with maximum value in L4-S1 fusion model. Also, the average stress on SIJ articular surfaces progressively increased from minimum in L4-L5 to maximum in L4-S1 fusion models.

Conclusion. The fusion at the lumbar spine level increased motion and stresses at the SIJ. This could be a probable reason for low back pain in patients after lumbar spine fusion procedures.”
“Objective: To evaluate the impact of the interaction of physical function and emotional well-being on disease-related parameters and coping with rheumatoid arthritis.

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 120: 501-508, 2

(C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 501-508, 2011″
“P>Transport of dicarboxylates across the chloroplast envelope plays an important role in transferring carbon skeletons to the nitrogen assimilation pathway and exporting reducing equivalent to the cytosol to prevent photo-inhibition (the malate valve). It was previously shown that the Arabidopsis plastidic 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter (AtpOMT1) and the general

dicarboxylate transporter (AtpDCT1) play crucial roles PI3K inhibitor at the interface between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. However, based on the in vitro transport properties of the recombinant transporters, it was hypothesized that AtpOMT1 might play a dual role, also functioning as an oxaloacetate/malate transporter, which is a crucial but currently unidentified component of the chloroplast malate valve. Here, we test this hypothesis

using Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants of AtpOMT1. Transport studies Epigenetic inhibitor ic50 revealed a dramatically reduced rate of oxaloacetate uptake into chloroplasts isolated from the knockout plant. CO(2)-dependent O(2) evolution assays showed that cytosolic oxaloacetate is efficiently transported into chloroplasts mainly by AtpOMT1, and supported the absence of additional oxaloacetate transporters. These findings strongly indicate that the high-affinity oxaloacetate transporter in Arabidopsis chloroplasts is AtpOMT1. Further, the knockout plants showed enhanced photo-inhibition under high light due to greater accumulation of reducing equivalents in the stroma, indicating malfunction of the malate valve in the knockout plants. The knockout mutant showed a phenotype consistent with reductions in 2-oxoglutarate transport, glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase activity, subsequent amino acid biosynthesis and photorespiration. Our results demonstrate that AtpOMT1 acts bi-functionally

see more as an oxaloacetate/malate transporter in the malate valve and as a 2-oxoglutarate/malate transporter mediating carbon/nitrogen metabolism.”
“Background: Studies of sodium have shown improvements in vascular function and blood pressure (BP). The effect of chronic sodium loading from a low-sodium diet to a Western diet on vascular function and BP has been less well studied.

Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of dietary salt intake on vascular function and BP.

Design: Thirty-five hypertensive volunteers met the inclusion criteria. After a 2-wk run-in with a low-sodium diet (60 mmol/d), the participants maintained their diets and were randomly assigned to receive sequentially 1 of 3 interventions for 4 wk, with a 2-wk washout between interventions: sodium-free tomato juice (A), tomato juice containing 90 mmol Na (B), and tomato juice containing 140 mmol Na (C).