cinerea (3,500 U/L) surpassed the enzyme production by free T ve

cinerea (3,500 U/L) surpassed the enzyme production by free T. versicolor (800 U/L). When the

conditions that gave the best laccase production to each fungus were employed in a stirred tank bioreactor, very low laccase production was observed for both the cases, suggesting that shear stress and mycelia damage caused by the agitation impellers negatively affected the enzyme production.”
“Backgroud: Bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are necessary for healing of injured tissues. Intravenous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is known to induce mobilization of BMDC to peripheral blood and the tissue levels of the stromal ABT-737 cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) to be key in their homing to sites of injury. We hypothesized that injection of SDF-1 to the site of injury and/or systemic administration of G-CSF increases homing of BMDC and improves healing of traumatic injury. We also postulated that increased homing of MSC alone to sites of injury would also improve tissue healing.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral lung contusion (LC) and assigned to the following groups: LC + injection of SDF-1 (LC 3-MA mouse + SDF-1) in the contused lung, pretreatment with systemic G-CSF for 5 days followed by either LC alone (LC + G-CSF) or by LC + injection of SDF-1 (LC + SDF-1/G-CSF). Rats in the MSC group were subjected to LC followed

by systemic injection of MSC (LC + MSC). Unmanipulated controls and LC + local injection of saline (LC + saline) served as controls. Lung

injury was assessed on days 1 and 5 postinjury using a histologic Lapatinib Lung Injury Score. BMDC and MSC homing were assessed on day 1 by hematopoietic progenitor cell (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, and CFU-E) colony growth and immunofluorescence tracking of tagged MSC in the injured lung, respectively.

Results: Both LC + SDF-1 and LC + G-CSF had increased hematopoietic progenitor cell colony growth in the injured lung, and their combination (LC + SDF-1/G-CSF) was additive when compared with LC + saline (18 +/- 3, 24 +/- 3, 32 +/- 3; 21 +/- 3, 36 +/- 10, 36 +/- 3; 31 +/- 4, 44 +/- 10, 53 +/- 5 vs. 6 +/- 2, 11 +/- 3, 17 +/- 4; * p < 0.05). Tagged MSC were tracked predominantly in the contused lung versus the non-contused lung (7 +/- 3 vs. 3 +/- 2, N degrees MSC/HPF; * p < 0.05). Lung Injury Score on day 5 after injury was significantly lower in the LC + SDF-1, LC + G-CSF, LC + SDF-1/G-CSF and LC + MSC groups versus LC + saline (1 +/- 0.6, 0.7 +/- 0.5, 1 +/- 0.9, 1.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; * p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Local SDF-1 and/or systemic G-CSF can effectively increase BMDC homing to sites of traumatic injury in an additive way and improve wound healing. This process appears to be mediated predominantly through MSC. Additional investigations are needed to identify the optimal adjuncts to improve wound healing following severe traumatic injury.

All the compounds (1-8) were enantioseparated for the first time,

All the compounds (1-8) were enantioseparated for the first time, while

the absolute configurations of 2a, 2b, 6a and 8b were reported first.”
“The single or multienergy nitrogen (N) ion implantation (MENII) processes with a dose (4 x 10(14) ions/cm(2)) just below the critical dose (1 x 10(15) ions/cm(2)) for the structural transformation of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were observed to significantly improve the electron field emission (EFE) properties. The single energy N ion implantation at 300 degrees C has shown better field emission properties with turn-on field (E(0)) of 7.1 Vactosertib datasheet V/mu m, as compared to room temperature implanted sample at

similar conditions (E(0)=8.0 V/mu m) or the pristine UNCD film (E(0)=13.9 V/mu m). On the other hand, the MENII with a specific sequence of implantation pronouncedly showed different effect on altering the EFE properties for UNCD films, and the implantation at 300 degrees C further enhanced the EFE behavior. The best EFE characteristics achieved for the UNCD film treated with the implantation process are E(0)=4.5 V/mu m and current density of (J(e)) = 2.0 mA/cm(2) (at 24.5 V/mu m). GSK126 The prime factors for improving the EFE properties are presumed to be the grain boundary incorporation and activation of the implanted N and the healing of induced defects, which are explained based on surface charge transfer doping mechanism. (C) see more 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3152790]“
“Background and aims: Most gene expression studies examining the effect of obesity and weight loss have been performed using

adipose tissue. However, the liver also plays a central role in maintaining energy balance. We wanted to study the effects of a hypocaloric diet on overall hepatic gene expression and metabolic risk factors.

Methods and results: The study subjects were middle-aged, obese women. The diet intervention subjects (n = 12) were on a hypocaloric, tow-fat diet for 8 weeks with a daily energy intake of 5.0 MJ (1200 kcal), white the control subjects (n = 19) maintained their weight. Liver biopsies were taken at the end of the diet period during a gallbladder operation. Hepatic gene expression was analyzed using microarrays by comparing the gene expression profiles from four subjects per group.

The postictal period has not received as much attention as the ti

The postictal period has not received as much attention as the time of seizure onset or the seizure itself. It may offer information that could be helpful in the definition of the epileptogenic zone and its lateralization. Here we review different behavioral, neuropsychological, and EEG phenomena of the postictal state and discuss several semiological features of the postictal period with respect to patient characteristics, seizure duration, influences of drug treatment, and secondary generalization.

Further evaluation may reveal information that could be helpful particularly with respect to resective epilepsy surgery, possibly allowing Nutlin-3 supplier better localization Duvelisib and lateralization. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A three-terminal device based upon a two-dimensional electron system is investigated in the regime of nonequilibrium transport. Excited electrons scatter with the cold Fermi sea and transfer energy and momentum to other electrons. A geometry analogous to a water

jet pump is used to create a jet pump for electrons. Because of its phenomenological similarity we name the observed behavior the “”electronic Venturi effect.”" (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi :10.1063/1.3577959]“
“For modern applications in microoptics, the refractive index (n) of polymers can be adjusted in a certain range by the addition of electron-rich organic dopants. As an unwanted side selleck chemicals llc effect, a pronounced plasticizing occurs. In this work, the addition of a crosslinker (divinylbenzene) to an unsaturated polyester matrix, doped with phenanthrene for n adjustment, allowed us to successfully suppress the plasticizing effect measured after polymerization. Even at high phenanthrene concentrations,

the glass-transition temperature of the initial polymer could be almost retained. An increase of the polymer n from 1.5684 to a value of 1.6425 was achieved. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 3514-3519, 2011″
“There is relatively little information on the underlying parameters that affect clinical features of the postictal period. Age-related physiological changes, including alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolism, neurotransmitter function, and responses of the brain to seizure activity may affect postictal clinical phenomena. Some conclusions can be drawn. Elderly adults and children, particularly in the presence of diffuse cerebral dysfunction, may have more prolonged postictal confusion. Postictal dysphasia strongly suggests a dominant hemisphere focus, more often temporal, and Todd’s paralysis is always contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Much additional information could be derived from the vast amount of video/EEG monitoring data available. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Combined therapy with vancomycin and meropenem or imipenem gave t

Combined therapy with vancomycin and meropenem or imipenem gave the most effective treatment against Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates based on empirical therapy. High frequencies of multiresistant bacteria in ICUs warn its to administer a few effective antibiotics in our hospitals more wisely in order to reduce selective pressure on sensitive strains. This could help save the life of ICU patients and prevent of spread of resistant isolates in these critical wards. Due to continuous changes in antibacterial susceptibility

patterns, periodical antibacterial sensitivity assessment in ICUs should be mandatory.”
“Weight regain after gastric bypass (GBP) can be associated with a gastrogastric fistula (GGF), in which a channel forms between the gastric pouch Bucladesine inhibitor and gastric remnant, allowing nutrients to pass through the “”old route”" rather than bypassing the duodenum. To further understand the mechanisms by which GGF may lead to weight regain, we investigated gut hormone levels in GBP patients with a GGF, before and after repair.

Seven post-GBP

subjects diagnosed with GGF were studied before and 4 months after GGF repair. Another cohort of 22 GBP PD173074 nmr control subjects without GGF complication were studied before and 1 year post-GBP. All subjects underwent a 50-g oral glucose tolerance test and blood was collected from 0-120 min for glucose, selleck chemicals insulin, ghrelin, PYY3-36, GIP, and GLP-1 levels.

Four months after GGF repair subjects lost 6.0 +/- 3.9 kg and had significantly increased postprandial PYY3-36 levels. After GGF repair, fasting and postprandial ghrelin levels decreased and were strongly correlated with weight loss. The insulin response to glucose also tended to be increased after GGF repair, however no concomitant increase in GLP-1 was observed. Compared to the post-GBP group, GLP-1 and PYY3-36 levels were significantly lower before GGF repair;

however, after GGF repair, PYY3-36 levels were no longer lower than the post-GBP group.

These data utilize the GGF model to highlight the possible role of duodenal shunting as a mechanism of sustained weight loss after GBP, and lend support to the potential link between blunted satiety peptide release and weight regain.”
“Aim: The aim of the present study was to establish Thai-specific reference ranges of triple markers for fetal Down syndrome as a function of gestational age as well as weight correction models and to compare the false positive rates when using Thai-specific model relative to Caucasian-specific model.

Material and Methods: A total of 993 normal Thai pregnant women were determined for mid-trimester serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), free-beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3), using DefiaXpress system (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA).


“We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical i


“We studied the feasibility and efficacy of intravesical instillations with 40 ml chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution

to prevent or reduce acute radiation cystitis in women undergoing pelvic radiotherapy.

In a comparative pilot study in 20 patients, half of the patients received instillations. Instillations’ bother was measured with visual analog scores (VAS, 0-10); bladder pain, with VAS; micturition-related quality of life, with the urogenital distress buy WH-4-023 inventory (UDI).

One of the instilled patients discontinued the instillations. The first median “”acceptability”"-VAS was 0 (range, 0-3); the last median was 1 (range, 0-3). “”Bladder pain”"-VAS peaked halfway in the treatment among

controls (median, 1; range, 0-5) and after treatment in the instilled patients (median, 1; range, 1-3). UDI scores showed over time median follow-up scores at or above median baseline scores in controls and at or below median baseline scores in instilled patients.

Intravesical instillations with chondroitin sulfate 0.2% solution may decrease the bother related to bladder symptoms and are well tolerated.”
“Growth of gallium nitride CA4P purchase on GaN(0001) surface is modeled by Monte Carlo method. Simulated growth is conducted in N-rich conditions, hence it is controlled by Ga atoms surface diffusion. It is shown that dominating four-body interactions of Ga atoms can cause step flow anisotropy. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show that parallel steps with periodic check details boundary conditions form double terrace structures, whereas initially V-shaped parallel step train initially bends and then every second step moves forward, building regular, stationary ordering as observed during metal organic vapor phase epitaxy or hydride vapor phase

epitaxy growth of GaN layers. These two phenomena recover surface meandered pair step pattern observed, since 1953, on many semiconductor surfaces, such as SiC, Si, or GaN. Change in terrace width or step orientation particle diffusion jump barriers leads either to step meandering or surface roughening. Additionally it is shown that step behavior changes with the Schwoebel barrier height. Furthermore, simulations under conditions corresponding to very high external particle flux result in triangular islands grown at the terraces. All structures, emerging in the simulations, have their corresponding cases in the experimental results. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3536516]“
“Meiotic drive causes the distortion of allelic segregation away from Mendelian expected ratios, often also reducing fecundity and favouring the evolution of drive suppressors. If different species evolve distinct drive-suppressor systems, then hybrid progeny may be sterile as a result of negative interactions of these systems’ components.

Results:

A high expression of WISP-1 was observed in 2

Results:

A high expression of WISP-1 was observed in 26 of the 86 cases of EEC (30.2%). The expression rate of WISP-1 in EEC was significantly higher than that in secretory endometrium (P < 0.005). Histopathological grades and PR were associated with high WISP-1 expression (P = 0.002, P = 0.027, respectively). The

estimated five-year survival rate TH-302 molecular weight of patients with low-to-moderate expression of WISP-1 was significantly higher than those with high WISP-1 expression (91.3% vs 65%, P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis revealed that high WISP-1 expression and positive lymphovascular space invasion were independent prognostic factors for survival.

Conclusions:

High expression of WISP-1 was related to tumor cell dedifferentiation and PR loss. WISP-1 might be a new molecular marker to predict the prognosis of patients with EEC.”
“The structures of condensed tannin from Pinus brutia bark were characterized by means of GC-MS, solid and liquid state C-13 NMR and MALDI-TOF MS analyses. The results indicated that the monomeric units building up the condensed tannin of brutia pine bark are mainly composed of catechin/epicatechin, gallocatechin/epigallocatechin

units accompanied by possibly tri- or tetra hydroxyl-flavanols. Some oligomers appear to present p-hydroxy- or 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid residues or glucose at their terminal 3-MA ic50 unit. Apart from oligomers, monomeric flavanoids were also present in the brutia bark extract. Taxifolin was especially found in appreciable amounts. Additionally, in this tannin procyanidin oligomers predominated while prodelphinidin units were present to a lesser extent. The NMR results showed that the oligomers in brutia pine bark tannin Exhibit 2,3-cis stereochemistry and C4-C6 bonds with a noticeable portion of C4-C8 interflavonoid links being present. The MALDI-TOF MS showed a series of peaks corresponding to flavonoid hexamers of the condensed tannin (1750 Da). (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) has been shown to play an important role in the selleck screening library metabolism of plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. However, data for the relationship between serum ApoA-V and TO level and the

association between ApoA-V levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate plasma ApoA-V level and its association with TG in patients with CAD determined by angiography.

METHODS: Three hundred forty subjects who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) were classified into a CAD group (n = 211) and a non-CAD group (n = 129) according to the results of their CAG. Serum ApoA-V levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

RESULTS: Patients in the CAD group had greater ApoA-V levels than controls (192.0 +/- 114.6 ng/mL vs 164.4 +/- 107.5 ng/mL, P < .05). The concentration of ApoA-V was positively correlated to TO level (r = 0.229, P < .01). This correlation was more intense in non-CAD group (r = 0.

Voriconazole,

Voriconazole, GW786034 order which is associated with photo-toxic side effects in some patients, may be an additional risk factor for SCC in this population.

METHODS: To test whether voriconazole is a risk factor for developing SCC in LTR, we evaluated cumulative exposure to voriconazole in 327 adults who underwent lung transplantation at one center between 1991 and 2010. Voriconazole exposure was assessed as a time-varying covariate. We used survival analysis methods to assess the risk of developing SCC over time.

RESULTS: Exposure to voriconazole was associated with a 2.6-fold increased risk for SCC. This phenomenon was dose-dependent: the risk for SCC increased by 5.6% with

each 60-day exposure at a standard dose of 200 mg twice daily. At 5 years after transplant, voriconazole conferred an absolute risk increase for SCC of 28%.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that caution should be taken when using voriconazole check details in LTR because this drug increases the already high risk for SCC in this population. J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:694-9

(C) 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Endometriosis with bowel involvement is the most invasive form and can cause infertility, chronic pelvic pain and bowel symptoms. Effective surgical treatment of endometriosis requires complete excision of endometriosis and in same case may require segmental rectosigmoid resection.

Between December 1997 and October 2003, 55 patients with rectovaginal endometriosis underwent a combined laparoscopic vaginal technique. 30 patients were found at a follow-up and underwent a telephone interview. The Natural Product Library datasheet questionnaire covered questions about symptoms related to recurrences of intestinal endometriosis, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and pregnancy.

Twenty-seven of 30 (90%) women have no clinical symptoms of reported recurrence of endometriosis. Two patients

(6.6%) had evidence of recurrence of bowel endometriosis. Dysmenorrhoea disappeared in 28 (93.3%), dyspareunia in 26 (86.7%) and pelvic pain in 27 (90%) patients. 17 patients (31%) tried to become pregnant and 11 of these patients (65%) became pregnant: 9 patients delivered healthy newborns, 18 pregnancies occurred and 19 healthy children were born.

Despite the small number of follow-up patients, our 94-month follow-up data demonstrated that endometriosis with bowel involvement and radical resection was associated with significant reductions in painful and dysfunctional symptoms, a low recurrence rate (6.6%) and high pregnancy rate (36.6%).”
“Using geographic information system and molecular tools, we characterized a possible outbreak of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain in 17 patients in Cotonou, Benin, during July 2005-October 2006. Most patients lived or worked in the same area and frequented the same local drinking bar. The isolates were streptomycin resistant.

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “
“Kineti

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Kinetics of thermal degradation occurring on polyester containing cationic dyeable comonomer units viz. 5-sulphoisophthalate moieties are studied by measurement of changes in intrinsic viscosity and carboxyl values on the polymer after subjecting the polymer chips to temperatures in the range 275-285 degrees C for different residence times ranging from 5 to 60 min and comparing with the homopolymer. The activation energy values for degradation are estimated from the kinetic data. Mechanical properties of the textured yarns produced from the partially oriented yarns (POY) spun under different residence times are measured. Yarn produced with higher residence time has

poor mechanical properties. The SEM images of the POY show presence Selleck C188-9 of particles at the surface of the yarn due to polymer degradation. The size of the particles as seen on the surface increase with increase of retention time. Addition LCL161 of thermal stabilizer helps in controlling the thermal degradation. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 2791-2800, 2010″
“Rheumatoid nodulosis is considered a benign variant of rheumatoid arthritis. Several therapies have been used with variable results. We report a 63-year-old man who presented with nodular lesions on the metacarpophalangeal joints and knees which were diagnosed of rheumatoid nodulosis. Topical tacrolimus was started with good response on

the following months.”
“Background: The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with the use of illegal drugs. Earlier observations suggested that users of illegal drugs may use AAS for reasons other than increasing muscle strength or size. The aim of the present study was to investigate the motives for AAS use among outpatients at a substance abuse center in Stockholm, Sweden.

Methods: All male patients under the age of 50 were asked whether they had used AAS during a 2-month period. An MS survey was administered to those who reported AAS experiences in the admittance interview.

Results: Twenty of the 175 respondents (11%) reported using AAS. The most frequently reported Raf inhibitor motives were related

to anabolic effects (i.e., for a good-looking body, to become stronger, or to perform better in sports). However, some users reported other motives; for example, to conceal concomitant drug use, to alleviate insecurity or low self-esteem, to become brave, or in preparation of committing a crime. Furthermore, many respondents reported side effects that were associated with AAS; most notably, irritability and depression/suicidal ideation.

Conclusion: Some users of illicit drugs also use MS for reasons other than the anabolic properties of these compounds. Therefore, considering that MS may cause or contribute to diverse morbidity, it is important to ask users of illicit drugs about MS use, even when obvious external signs of MS use are lacking.

Although all LV echocardiographic measurements showed a deteriora

Although all LV echocardiographic measurements showed a deterioration 1 day after surgery, only LV TDI measurements were impaired

in patients at discharge Selleck PCI-34051 versus control subjects (S’: 5.7 +/- A 2.0 vs 7.1 +/- A 2.7 cm/s; E’: 9.8 +/- A 3.9 vs 13.7 +/- A 5.1 cm/s; E/E’: 12.2 +/- A 6.4 vs 8.8 +/- A 4.3; p < 0.05). In the RV, TAPSE and RV TDI velocities also were impaired in patients at discharge versus control subjects (TAPSE: 9 +/- A 3 vs 17 +/- A 5 mm; S’: 5.2 +/- A 1.7 vs 11.4 +/- A 3.4 cm/s; E’: 7.3 +/- A 2.5 vs 16.3 +/- A 5.2 cm/s; E/E’: 12.5 +/- A 6.8 vs 4.8 +/- A 1.9; p < 0.05). Furthermore, longer aortic cross-clamp times were associated with more impaired postoperative LV and RV performance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, both systolic and Ferroptosis inhibitor diastolic biventricular performances were impaired shortly after CHD correction. This impairment was detected only by TDI parameters and TAPSE. Furthermore, a longer-lasting negative influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on myocardial performance was suggested.”
“Purpose: Short-term and saturated simulated

dives followed by decompression with air, cause a decrease in platelet count and increased activation of fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term dives with trimix as a breathing mixture induce the activation of platelets, and/or fibrinolysis.

Material and Methods: 30 male divers were subjected to short-term hyperbaric exposures to 0.7 MPa. Thirty divers used air and then the same divers used trimix as a breathing mixture.

Results: The mean platelet count dropped significantly after decompression only in the group breathing air. The number of CD62P positive

platelets and the amount of platelet-derived this website micro particles were statistically significant higher after decompression in both exposures. The number of CD61 positive platelets increased significantly only in the group breathing air. We observed a significant decrease of factor XII and fibrinogen concentrations after decompression only in the group breathing air. A significant increase in the concentration of plasmin-antiplasmin complex in both groups was detected.

Conclusions: Short-term hyperbaric exposure and decompression performed according to current safety standards activates platelets and the fibrinolytic system. Trimix protects divers from a reduction in the amount of platelets, fibrinogen and factor XII in the course of these exposures.”
“This study aimed to determine the causes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in apparently healthy children at a single center in the era of primary prevention (screening questionnaire [SQ]) and secondary prevention (automated external defibrillator [AED] and the automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator [AICD]).

The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impa

The objective of this study was to compare the environmental impact H 89 ic50 of modern (2007) US dairy production with historical production practices as exemplified by the US dairy system in 1944. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the dairy herd was used to estimate resource inputs and waste outputs per billion

kg of milk. Both the modern and historical production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, herd population dynamics, and production data from US dairy farms. Modern dairy practices require considerably fewer resources than dairying in 1944 with 21% of animals, 23% of feedstuffs, 35% of the water, and only 10% of the land required to produce the same 1 billion kg of milk. Waste outputs were similarly reduced, with modern dairy systems producing

24% of the manure, 43% of CH(4), and 56% of N(2)O per billion kg of milk compared with equivalent milk from historical dairying. The carbon footprint per billion kilograms of milk produced in 2007 was 37% of equivalent milk production in 1944. To fulfill the increasing requirements of the US population for dairy products, it is essential to adopt management practices and technologies that improve productive efficiency, allowing milk production to be increased while reducing resource use and mitigating environmental impact.”
“The whitening efficiency of regenerated cellulose fibers using sodium 4,4′-distyrylbiphenyl sulfonate in the presence of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylsulfate) and a cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium

chloride) and salt (NaCl) was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy PLX4032 and color index values (brightness, whiteness, and yellowness). Epifluorescence images gave an intense blue color with an apparent uniform emission distribution. In absence of salt, the whitening efficiency was higher for aqueous solutions containing cationic surfactant below critical micellar concentration (cmc). In presence of salt, whitening efficiency was higher for anionic surfactant and more important. The concentration of surfactant required for greater brightness, whiteness, and yellowness was lower than that required in absence of salt. These data were discussed by the decrease of the cmc and by the screening of the modified IWR-1-endo order cellulose fibers by counter ions coming from the salt. The role of surfactants was explained by the admicelization during the sorption process. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The high affinity nitrate transport system (HATS) plays an important role in rice nitrogen acquisition because, even under flooded anaerobic cultivation when NH<sub arrange=”"stack”">4+ dominates, significant nitrification occurs on the root surface. In the rice genome, four NRT2 and two NAR2 genes encoding HATS components have been identified. One gene OsNRT2.3 was mRNA spliced into OsNRT2.3a and OsNRT2.3b and OsNAR2.1 interacts with OsNRT2.1/2.