24, p = .003, OR 1.27). In model 2, with the demographic variables, GSK2656157 mouse trauma exposure, perceived stress, depression and alcohol abuse/dependence, only depression significantly predicted PTSD status (β = .21, p = .003, OR 1.23) and number of previous trauma exposures was no longer a significant predictor (β = .15, p = .184, OR 1.16). In model 3, with the demographic variables, trauma exposure, perceived stress, depression, alcohol abuse/dependence and social support and resilience, depression (β = .335, p = .002, OR 1.40), social support (β = −.74, p = .020, OR .93) and resilience (β = .114, p = .020,
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical OR 1.12) significantly predicted PTSD status. Results are presented in Table 3. Table 3 Parameters
for the variables predicting PTSD status Discussion The main findings of this study can be summarised as follows: paramedic trainees had high rates of PTSD, depression and trauma exposure (based on self-reported symptoms). Participants meeting criteria for PTSD had significantly higher rates of depression, perceived Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical stress and physical health symptoms and significantly lower rates of resilience and social support. Higher Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical rates of trauma exposure and depression and lower rates of social support and resilience were significant predictors of PTSD. Depression had a mediating effect on the relationship between trauma exposure and PTSD. These finding mirrors prior research [10,11]. Paramedic trainees had high rates of trauma exposure, both related (e.g. witnessing a transport accident) and unrelated (e.g. being a victim of physical assault) to work. Trauma exposure that is unrelated to work, including childhood exposure to violence, abuse Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and neglect, may influence career choice among paramedics. A high rate (38.4%) of physical, sexual and emotional abuse was found in a sample of Canadian veteran paramedics . An association between childhood abuse and neglect and higher mental and physical health symptom scores was also reported in that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sample .
Together with the findings of our study, it suggests Cell press that exposure to early adversity may impact on the career choice of paramedics. 16% of paramedic trainees met symptom criteria for PTSD. The rate of current PTSD is considerably higher than the 12 month prevalence rate of 0.6% among South Africans (based on lay administered structural interview) . The rate of PTSD is consistent with that documented by a group of Dutch researchers (2003) who found that 12% of emergency workers displayed PTSD symptoms . Two other studies found much higher rates of PTSD symptomatology among ambulance service workers at 21% and 22%, respectively [10,32]. The current study also found high rates of depression among paramedic trainees (28%). Depression was a significant predictor of PTSD and had a mediating effect between trauma exposure and PTSD status.