Methods Enzymol 1991, 194:795–823.PubMedCrossRef 36. Alfa C, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Experiments with fission yeast : a laboratory course manual . Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, N.Y; 1993. 37. Craven RA, Griffiths PCI-34051 DJ, Sheldrick KS, Randall RE, Hagan IM, Carr AM: Vectors for the expression of tagged proteins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Gene 1998,221(1):59–68.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions JYK designed and performed the majority of the experiments. ESK designed
and performed some experiments. All the authors contributed to analyzing and interpreting results. JYK and JHR wrote, read, and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background With more than 9 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and about 1.7 million deaths in 2009  TB remains one of the most serious infectious diseases worldwide. Treatment and control of TB is further complicated by the emergence of drug resistant and even multi drug resistant (MDR) strains [Crenolanib resistance to at least isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF)] . Among high-incidence settings, Sub-Saharan Africa is eminently affected with two million new TB cases per year . This study focuses on Sierra
Leone, a high burden country with Akt inhibitor an annual TB incidence rate of 574 per 100.000 people and an annual mortality rate of 149 per 100.000 people. Treatment options are further hampered by the fact that 23% among previously treated TB patients in Sierra Leone suffer from an MDR M. tuberculosis strain . Rapid detection of resistance is the key task to ensure an effective treatment of patients and also to avoid further spread of resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Molecular assays that detect the genetic variants that mediate resistance constitute a rapid alternative to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) and may even be performed directly on clinical specimens without
culture [5, 6]. Therefore it is essential to elucidate the genetic basis of clinical resistance and to correlate phenotypic and molecular resistance data. Resistance to INH is predominantly mediated by one mutation in the katG gene at codon 315 which results in the complete or partial loss of catalase-peroxidase activity . Further mutations in the promoter buy Gefitinib regions of inhA  and ahpC [9, 10] are associated with INH resistance. Mutations responsible for RIF resistance are primarily located in the so-called rifampin resistance determining region (RRDR; codon 507–533 according to E. coli numbering system) of the rpoB gene which encodes the beta subunit of the RNA polymerase . Resistance to streptomycin (SM) is mediated by mutations in different genes. Polymorphisms in rrs and rpsL, coding for 16 S rRNA and the ribosomal protein S12, respectively, are mainly responsible for high-level resistance . Recently, the gidB gene, which encodes a 7-methylguanosine methyltransferase specific for 16 S rRNA, has additionally been associated with SM resistance .