This observation was used to define a series of risk groups based on number of adverse lesions. Taking this approach, we defined a favorable risk group by the absence of adverse genetic lesions, an intermediate group with one adverse lesion and a high-risk group defined by the co-segregation of 41 adverse lesion. This genetic grouping was independent of the International Staging System (ISS) and so was integrated with the ISS to identify an ultra-high-risk group defined GDC-0449 mouse by ISS II or III and 41 adverse lesion. This group constituted 13.8% of patients and was associated with a median OS of 19.4 months. Leukemia (2012) 26, 349-355; doi:10.1038/leu.2011.204; published online 12
“Children selleck compound with specific reading impairment may have subtle deficits in speech perception related to difficulties in phonological processing. The aim of this study was to examine brain oscillatory activity related to phonological processing in the context of auditory sentence comprehension using magnetoencephalography to better understand these deficits.
Good and poor readers, 16-18 years of age, were tested on speech perception of sentence-terminal incongruent words that were phonologically manipulated to be similar or dissimilar to corresponding congruent target words. Functional coupling between regions was measured using phase-locking values (PLVs). Gamma-band (30-45 Hz) PLV between auditory cortex and superior temporal sulcus in the right hemisphere was differentially
modulated in the two groups by the degree of phonological contrast between the congruent and the incongruent target words in the latency range associated with semantic processing. Specifically, the PLV was larger in the phonologically similar than in the phonologically dissimilar condition in the good readers. This pattern was reversed in the poor readers, whose lower PLV in the phonologically similar condition may be indicative of the impaired phonological coding abilities of the group, and consequent vulnerability under perceptually demanding conditions. Overall, the results support the role of gamma oscillations in spoken language processing. NeuroReport 23:851-856 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott BAY 63-2521 in vitro Williams & Wilkins.”
“Using voxel-based (VBA) and region-of-interest (ROI) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses, we examined white matter (WM) organization in seven children with dyslexia and six age-matched controls. Both methods demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and abnormal orientation in the right SLF in dyslexics. Application of this complementary dual DTI approach to dyslexia, which included novel analyses of fiber orientation, demonstrates its usefulness for analyzing mild and complex WM abnormalities. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.