STX see more release can be assessed by EIA, which takes only about 2 h. Thus, the results of these assays can be available already one day after the isolation of the suspected causative STEC. Our data show that the results of the EIA and of the cytotoxicity assay on Vero cells are highly concordant. Lack of STX release in response to a specific antibiotic should provide a rationale to conduct clinical studies with the required statistically significant power that provide definitive answers to burning questions as to the potential of antibiotics to eradicate STEC, to diminish the length of carrier status, and to attenuate the development of HUS. Conclusions This study suggests that
there is a realistic chance for antibiotic treatment of patients in future
outbreaks of STEC. Prerequisite R428 research buy is a rapid characterization of the respective epidemiologic EHEC strain with regard to its release of STX in response to specific antibiotics. Those antibiotics that do not enhance the release of STX should be tested in well-controlled check details clinical studies following the principle to treat persons as soon as possible with as high as possible doses to eradicate the STEC and thereby prevent further production and release of STX. Methods Bacteria strains The isolates P5711 and P5765 of STEC O104:H4 were isolated from stool specimen of two HUS patients using standard diagnostic procedures at the Medical Center, University of Cologne, during the German STEC outbreak in spring 2011. According to Glycogen branching enzyme the Helsinki Declaration, these bacteria cannot be defined as identifiable human material so that their use does not require a specific ethical approval. The reference STEC O157:H7, strain EDL933  was provided by the Nationales Referenzzentrum für Salmonellen und andere Enteritiserreger,
Robert Koch-Institut, Bereich Wernigerode. As an STX negative control, the E. coli strain ATCC 25922 was used. Strain typing P7511 and P5765 were typed for the presence of STX1, STX2 by the method of Sharma et al.. The presence of the following genes was determined by PCR followed by DNA probe hybridization: intimin (eae), E. coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), invasin (ipaH), EAEC-heat-stable enterotoxin (EAST1), pAA virulence plasmid (aatA). To confirm the association of the clinical isolates with the outbreak, the recently published multiplex PCR was applied . The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for ciprofloxacin, meropenem, fosfomycin, gentamicin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol, and the ESBL phenotype were determined by E-test (AB-Biodisk). Induction of STX expression in liquid culture Starter cultures (5 ml) of STEC P5711, P5765, and O157:H7 and of E.coli ATCC 25922, were inoculated in L-broth from single colonies on McConkey agar. After 6 hours of incubation at 37°C with vigorous shaking, 200 μl of the starter culture were inoculated into 100 ml of L-broth.