Methods Data sources For the calibration of FRAX, we used two dif

Methods Data sources For the calibration of FRAX, we used two different sources of data: (1) the national hospitalization registry of the Netherlands and (2) the Dutch national mortality statistics. Hip fractures in the Netherlands were identified using the national hospitalization registry (“Landelijke Medische Registratie, LMR”) [8]. The vast majority of patients who sustain a hip fracture are recorded as inpatient hospitalizations. The LMR is therefore the best option to estimate national Bucladesine nmr incidence rates of hip fractures

in the Netherlands. Up to 2004, the completeness of the LMR has been shown to be very high (98.9% in 2004) [9], and the database has been widely used for various research purposes [10–18]. Since 2005, however, the number of missing records in the LMR has increased, probably as a result of the

stepwise introduction of a new reimbursement system in hospitals. The proportion of missing records was estimated at 3.3% in 2005, 10.5% in 2006, and 12.0% in 2007 [9]. The register is held by several licensees; in this paper, we have used LMR data from Statistics Netherlands for the years 2004/2005. The reason for choosing 2004 Dasatinib and 2005 was that we considered a 1.1% rate of under-recording as acceptable, but not a >10% (from 2005 on) missing rate. Data for 2004 were delivered in an aggregated report by Statistics Netherlands. In contrast to hip fractures, incidence of osteoporotic fractures could not be determined using national registries (including LMR), because a dedicated registry with routinely recorded osteoporotic fractures does not exist in the Netherlands. Therefore, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Metabolic Bone Disease used the population of Sweden in order to impute incidence rates of major osteoporotic MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit fractures in the Netherlands [19, 20]. In Malmö, radiography referrals are recorded for all fractures that

come to medical attention. For each age and sex category, incidence rate ratios for major osteoporotic fractures to hip fractures were calculated in this Swedish population [20]. It was assumed that these age- and gender-specific ratios found in Malmö are comparable to those in the Netherlands. This assumption has also been used for many of the FRAX models with incomplete epidemiological information. Available information suggests that the age- and gender-stratified pattern of fracture is very similar in the Western world and Selleck Verteporfin Australia, although it should be noted that incidence rates for vertebral fracture as judged by vertebral morphometry may be underestimated in some of these data sources [19]. Mortality rates were extracted using the national mortality registry, available from Statistics Netherlands. When a patient dies, doctors and coroners are obliged to fill out a death certificate. The national mortality registry has a high degree of completeness because of the legal requirement.

8 44 9 37 3 28 2 30 2 38 6 <0 0001  Medium 33 3 33 1 32 2 34 4 32

8 44.9 37.3 28.2 30.2 38.6 <0.0001  Medium 33.3 33.1 32.2 34.4 32.7 33.1    High 35 21.9 30.5 37.4 37.1 28.3   Decision latitude

(%)  Low 28.3 29.3 29.4 27.3 28.4 30.6 0.556  Medium 34.7 37 33.3 35.1 34.9 36.3    High 36.9 33.7 37.4 37.6 36.7 33.1   Physically demanding work (%)  Yes 14.7 20.8 15.9 13.3 15.2 13.8 0.013  No 85.3 79.2 84.1 86.7 84.8 86.2   Smoking (%)  Yes 23 13.4 17.3 24.8 25.1 24.9 <0.0001  No 77 86.6 82.7 75.2 74.9 75.1   As listed in Table 2, the overall mean score for need for recovery in our study population was 35.97 (SD = 25.97) at baseline. Over 22% of the employees reported a need for recovery score above the cut-off point. With regard to the different age groups, the following pattern was observed AZD8931 ic50 at baseline measurement: need for recovery was lowest in the lowest age group and increased with increasing age until the age group 46–55 years, and then decreased in the age group of 56–65 years. Male employees reported a higher need for recovery compared to female employees. Also, in the different age groups, differences in need for Selleckchem SC79 recovery were observed with respect to gender, with statistically significant differences found for the age groups of 26–35 years and 36–45 years. Substantial and statistical

significant differences in need for recovery were observed in the different age groups (p < 0.0001) across demographic, health, domestic and work-related characteristics. The highest percentage of need for recovery cases was found among those employees between 46 and 55 years of age. In all age groups, reporting work–family conflict, psychological job demands, overtime work and physically demanding work were AICAR in vivo associated with significantly higher levels of need isothipendyl for recovery. Table 2 Mean and prevalence of need for recovery from work across demographic, health, domestic and work-related characteristics at baseline measurement (May 1998) * p < 0.05 Also, having a long-term illness and working hours per week were associated with significantly higher levels of need for recovery in every age group, except for the youngest (18–25 years). Living alone was associated with significantly

higher levels of need for recovery in the oldest age groups (46–55, 56–65 years). Low decision latitude was associated with significantly higher levels of need for recovery in the 36–45 and 46–55 age groups. Smoking was significantly associated with higher levels of need for recovery in almost all age groups. In Table 3, the relationship between age and future need for recovery caseness is given. When age was operationalized as a continuous variable (10 years increase), no significant relation was found with need for recovery caseness over time. When considering age as a categorical variable, more detailed information was obtained. For men, the age groups 36–45 and 46–55 years were statistically significant associated with elevated need for recovery over time ((RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.07–1.58) and (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03–1.

Fungal Divers 48:1–250PubMedCentralPubMed Jaklitsch WM, Voglmayr

Fungal Divers 48:1–250PubMedCentralPubMed Jaklitsch WM, Voglmayr H (2012) Hypocrea britdaniae and H. foliicola: two remarkable new European

species. Mycologia 104:925–941PubMedCentralPubMed Jaklitsch WM, Stadler M, Voglmayr H (2012) Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma. Mycologia 104:1213–1221PubMed Jaklitsch WM, Samuels GJ, Ismaiel A, Voglmayr H (2013) Disentangling the Trichoderma viridescens complex. Persoonia 31:112–146 Jaworski A, Brückner H (1999) Detection of new sequences of peptaibol antibiotics trichotoxins A-40 by on-line Buparlisib solubility dmso liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass selleckchem spectrometry. J Chromatography A 862:179–189 Jaworski A, Brückner H (2001a) Peptaibol antibiotics trichoaureocins from the mold Trichoderma aureoviride. Amino Acids 21:6–7 Jaworski A, Brückner H (2001b) Sequences of polypeptide antibiotics stilboflavins, natural peptaibol libraries of the mold Stilbella EPZ-6438 manufacturer flavipes. J Pept Sci 7:433–447PubMed Jaworski A, Kirschbaum J, Brückner H (1999) Structures of trichovirins II, peptaibol antibiotics from the mold Trichoderma viride NRRL 5243. J Pept Sci 5:341–351PubMed Jeleń H, Błaszczyk L, Chełkowski J, Rogowicz K, Strakowska J (2013) Formation of 6-n-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one

(6-PAP) and other volatiles by different Trichoderma species. Mycol Prog. doi:10.​1007/​s11557-013-0942-2 Kim CS, Shirouzu T, Nakagiri A, Sotome K, Nagasawa E, Maekawa N (2012) Trichoderma mienum sp. nov., Histamine H2 receptor isolated from mushroom farms in Japan. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 102:629–641PubMed Kim CS, Shirouzu T, Nakagiri A, Sotome K, Nagasawa E, Maekawa N (2013) Trichoderma eijii and T. pseudolacteum, two new species

from Japan. Mycol Prog 12:739–753 Kimonyo A, Brückner H (2013) Sequences of metanicins, 20-residue peptaibols from the ascomycetous fungus CBS 597.80. Chem Biodivers 10:813–826PubMed Kirschbaum J, Krause C, Winzheimer RK, Brückner H (2003) Sequences of alamethicins F30 and F50 reconsidered and reconciled. J Pept Sci 9:799–809PubMed Krause C, Kirschbaum J, Brückner H (2006a) Peptaibiomics: an advanced, rapid and selective analysis of peptaibiotics/peptaibols by SPE/LC-ES-MS. Amino Acids 30:435–443PubMed Krause C, Kirschbaum J, Jung G, Brückner H (2006b) Sequence diversity of the peptaibol antibiotic suzukacillin-A from the mold Trichoderma viride. J Pept Sci 12:321–327 Krause C, Kirschbaum J, Brückner H (2007) Peptaibiomics: microheterogeneity, dynamics, and sequences of trichobrachins, peptaibiotics from Trichoderma parceramosum Bissett (T. longibrachiatum Rifai). Chem Biodivers 4:1083–1102PubMed Kremer A, Li SM (2010) A tyrosine O-prenyltransferase catalyses the first pathway-specific step in the biosynthesis of sirodesmin PL.

Here, we named STM1852 “Cpx activating connector-like factor A”,

Here, we named STM1852 “Cpx activating connector-like factor A”, or CacA. Figure 1 The identification of a novel connector-like factor, CacA. A. β-galactosidase activity from

a cpxP-lac transcriptional fusion expressed in the wild-type strain (AK1052) harboring pUC19, pUC19-R1, and pWN1. Bacteria were grown for 4 h in LB before β-galactosidase activity was measured (Miller units). The data correspond to the means of two independent experiments performed in duplicate, and the error bars represent standard deviations. B. A genetic map of the cacA (STM1852) locus in Salmonella. Each arrow indicates a gene and its orientation in the chromosome. The chromosomal location corresponding to the inserted DNA fragment of the pWN1 plasmid clone is indicated by a Selleck I BET 762 horizontal bar. C. β-galactosidase activity from cpxP-lac or OSI-027 research buy spy-lac transcriptional fusions in Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor a wild-type (AK1052 or AK1053) strain harboring pASK or pASK-cacA. Bacteria were grown for 2

h in LB in the presence of 0.2 μg/ml anhydrotetracycline (ATc) before β-galactosidase activity was measured (arbitrary units) as described [42]. The data correspond to the means of three independent experiments performed in duplicate, and the error bars represent standard deviations. D. β-galactosidase activity from a cpxP-lac transcriptional fusion in the wild-type strain (AK1052) harboring pBAD18 or pBAD18-cacA and the ΔcpxR mutant (AK1061) and ΔcpxA mutant (AK1062) strains harboring pBAD18-cacA. Bacteria

were grown for 4 h in LB in the presence (+) or absence (−) of 5 mM L-arabinose before NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase β-galactosidase activity was measured (Miller units). The data correspond to the means of two independent experiments performed in duplicate, and the error bars representstandardrepresent standard deviations. E. β-galactosidase activity from cpxP-lac or spy-lac transcriptional fusions in a wild-type strain (−; AK1052 or AK1053) and a ΔcacA mutant strain (AK1075 or AK1076). Bacteria were grown for 4 h in N-minimal medium, pH 7.7 with 10 μM Mg2+ before β-galactosidase activity was measured (arbitrary units) as described [42]. The data correspond to the means of three independent experiments performed in duplicate, and the error bars represent standard deviations. Single and double asterisks indicate p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, using an unpaired t test for analysis. CacA-mediated cpxP activation is dependent on the CpxR/CpxA system The results described above demonstrated that cpxP transcription was induced when CacA was expressed from a high-copy-number plasmid or from a heterologous promoter in an inducer-dependent manner. Next, we compared the β-galactosidase activities of the cpxP-lac fusion from cpxR and cpxA mutant strains harboring pBAD18-cacA to an isogenic cpxR + A + strain containing the same plasmid (Figure 1D).


Glucosamine sulfate supplementation in patients with knee pain has been Doramapimod nmr reported to improve joint pain and function [24]. For example, Pavelka and colleagues [25] evaluated the effects of 3-years of glucosamine sulfate supplementation on progressive joint degeneration and symptoms associated with knee OA. Results indicated that markers of knee pain, physical function, and joints stiffness were improved. Similarly, Usha and coworkers [26] studied the efficacy and safety of combinations of glucosamine and methlysulfonylmethane (MSM) supplementation in patients with knee OA. The researchers found that supplementation with glucosamine

and MSM reduced joint pain and swelling, while improving the physical function of the joints [26]. These findings and others indicate that glucosamine, chondroitin, PLX-4720 in vivo and/or MSM supplementation may have some therapeutic benefits for OA patients. For this reason, dietary supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and/or MSM has been recommended particularly for active individuals [5, 27–29]. see more Theoretically, glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM supplementation may provide additive benefits to individuals with knee OA initiating

an exercise and weight loss program. The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program will experience more favorable changes in body composition, functional status, and/or markers of health when following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate-based diet; 2) to determine whether dietary supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and Methocarbamol MSM during a weight loss

and exercise program lessens symptoms of pain, improves functional capacity, and/or promotes greater health benefits in women with knee OA; and, 3) to determine whether there are any additive benefits of combining these strategies. It was hypothesized that all participants would experience beneficial changes in body mass, body composition, functional status, and markers of health. However, greater benefits would be observed in those following a higher protein diet with glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM supplementation. Methods Experimental design The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel clinical trial conducted in a university research setting. Participants with physician diagnosed OA participated in the Curves® (Curves International, Waco, TX) fitness and weight management program for 14-weeks [30]. This program was selected because it offers higher carbohydrate and higher protein diets; incorporates circuit-style resistance training as the primary exercise modality; it has been found to be effective in promoting weight loss and improving markers of health and fitness in sedentary obese women [20–23]; it offers a joint support supplement containing GCM to its members; and, the program is widely available.

The endospores were obtained from seven days-old

BG and p

The endospores were obtained from seven days-old

BG and purified of cell debris and the medium. Purity of the endospores was >98 %, verified by microscopic examination. Finally, BG endospores were suspended in ethanol, or in purified sterile water, and used for bio-aerosol generation. The densities of the endospore suspensions used for bio-aerosol generation inside the aerosol chamber were in the range of 106–109 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. The transmittance of BG spores described above was measured at Military University of Technology and was used in the interpretation of the measured infrared spectra. The FTIR Spectrometer Constructed for Remote Detection of Bio-aerosols in the Laboratory and in the Field The newly built FTIR spectrometer is a prototype of a Selleckchem PD0332991 portable field instrument intended to monitor the atmosphere. The instrument works in two spectral channels, namely: 3–5 μm and 8–12 μm atmospheric windows, with spectral resolution of about 1 cm−1. The spectral resolution and other measurement parameters

were chosen to take into account dynamic behaviours of biological agents. Adequate high speed of both, optical path changes and data collection, is necessary. The system enables us to measure between 4 and 8 interferograms per second. Reduction BAY 57-1293 ic50 of the spectral resolution allows optimizing the speed of the measurements. The spectrometer can work as an autonomous system this website collecting data in its mass memory. Moreover, the measurements can be controlled by software from a portable computer. The spectrometer described above is shown in Fig. 1. The instrument is composed of the measurement head, a control and data acquisition unit, and a telescope allowing to select the target volume. At the front of the measurement head two entrance windows for both channels can be observed. All component parts can be mounted on the tripod. Field of view of both channels is around 1.2 deg. The diameter

of the beam is 25 mm. Fig. 1 FTIR Spectrometer for the detection and identification of bio-aerosols in the atmosphere (Technical University Warsaw, Poland; Space Research Centre, Warsaw, Poland) Passive Remote Detection of Biological Aerosols in the Laboratory The measurements of the radiance from BG were done in the laboratory chamber unless using our newly constructed FTIR spectrometer. In Fig. 2 the spectrometer with nitrogen cooled detector intended for laboratory measurements is shown. The scheme of our laboratory spectrometric measurements is described in Fig. 3. Biological aerosols were injected into the laboratory cubic chamber in sensor’s field of view. The background spectra were obtained before and after the main measurements. The background in this case was a black body with various temperatures. Fig. 2 Laboratory FTIR spectrometer with nitrogen-cooled detector Fig.

FTM displayed in Fig  2 may serve to outline some points essentia

FTM displayed in Fig. 2 may serve to outline some points essential for optimal measurements of the O–I 1 rise kinetics: (1) The pulse-modulated fluorescence ML is switched

on only 100 μs before onset of AL to minimize the fluorescence rise induced by the ML and, hence, to allow use of relatively high ML-intensity setting for the sake of a high signal/noise ratio.   (2) Maximal measuring pulse-frequency (MFmax) is triggered simultaneously with ML-on. The default setting of MFmax = 100 kHz provides sufficient selleckchem time resolution for reliable assessment of the O–I 1 kinetics with time constants in the order of 200 μs.   (3) AL is triggered at time −5 μs to take account of a small time delay between switching of the AL-LED-driver and AL-on.   (4) The amplifier “gating” (S&H off) is triggered on for 15 μs for AL-on (from −10 to 5 μs) and for 80 μs for the 50 μs ST pulse (from 995 to 1,075 μs).   Consecutive measurements of O–I 1 rise kinetics driven by strong 440-, 480-, 540-, 590-, and 625-nm light of the same sample were preprogrammed in special Script-files for Chlorella and Synechocystis with 10-s dark-time between measurements. For each color, ML-intensity/Gain settings were programmed to

give approximately equal F o values. AL/MT-intensity settings were programmed such that for the investigated organism the initial rise curves displayed similar slopes with all the colors. Analysis of O–I 1 rise kinetics The eFT508 kinetics of the O–I 1 fluorescence rise were analyzed with the help of a dedicated fitting routine developed for determination of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross section of PS II, here called Sigma(II)λ. Fitting is based on Adenylyl cyclase the reversible radical

pair model of PS II originally described by Lavergne and Trissl (1995) that was extended to take account of Q A − -find more reoxidation (Klughammer C, Kolbowski J and Schreiber U, in preparation). Variable parameters in this model, fitted by the PamWin-3 program, are: J Sigmoidicity parameter, which is related to Joliot’s connectivity parameter, p, via the equation J = p/(1 – p) Tau Time constant of light-driven reduction of QA (by AL or MT pulse), corresponding to the inverse of the rate constant of PS II turnover, k(II) Tau(reox) Time constant of Q A − -reoxidation. Directly measured parameters are the F o and I 1-levels, which define the total range of ∆F that can be induced by a saturating ST flash (ST pulse) in the presence of an oxidized PQ-pool. The fitted parameters refer to the kinetics of QA-reduction, i.e., the increase of (1 − q), where q represents the fraction of open PS II reaction centers.

“Background Francisella tularensis is a facultative intrac

“Background Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular, gram-negative coccobacillus, which causes the potentially lethal disease tularemia. This zoonotic disease is transmitted via vectors such as ticks and mosquitoes and infects predominantly mammals such as small rodents, hares and rabbits [1]. The subspecies tularensis and holarctica also give rise to human infections. The pathogen is highly contagious,

requiring SRT1720 molecular weight as few as 10 bacteria to cause human infection, and subspecies tularensis causes a very aggressive disease with high mortality in humans if untreated [2]. The high virulence, ease of spread, and potentially high mortality of tularemia has led to the classification of F. tularensis as one of six category A select agents, i.e., the agents most likely to be used for bioterrorism [3]. In experimental infections, F.

novicida and F. tularensis LVS are often used since both show significant virulence in small rodents but still are classified as BSL2 pathogens. The former species very rarely causes human infections and the latter is a human vaccine strain of subspecies holarctica origin [4]. An important virulence trait of F. tularensis is its ability to survive and multiply in an array of different cell types including hepatocytes and professional phagocytes [5]. The intracellular lifestyle relies on escape from the phagosome and the subsequent proliferation in the cytoplasm [6]. The mechanism of escape from the phagosome Volasertib is not known but requires expression of the global regulator MglA (macrophage growth locus) Edoxaban [7]. This is most likely through its positive regulation of

the genes belonging to the intracellular growth locus (igl) and other genes of the Francisella pathogenicity island. MglA together with an ortholog, SspA, forms a complex that directly interacts with the RNA polymerase [8] conferring a complex regulatory role that leads to the control of more than 100 genes and proteins in F. tularensis [9, 10]. Besides the igl operon, it has been suggested that the activities of several stress-regulated factors, such as SspA, Hfq, CspC, and UspA, are linked to the MglA-dependent regulation [10]. Thereby, it plays an important role for the intracellular growth and stress responses in general and for the adaptation to oxidative stress response specifically. Iron is essential for the survival of almost all living organisms. Limiting the amount of iron accessible to pathogens is therefore an important part of the host defence system [11]. Thus, it is essential for successful pathogens to circumvent this and they have evolved various strategies, such as the usage of siderophores, which are high affinity iron chelators synthesized in response to iron starvation [12]. Siderophore production in Francisella is dependent on proteins encoded in the fsl operon (Francisella siderophore locus) [13–15].

1 Analysis of Raman spectra (Fig  3) revealed that the resolvable

1 Analysis of Raman spectra (Fig. 3) revealed that the resolvable

mineral factor was of a carbonated apatite almost identical to what was reported by Tarnowski et al. [22] (PO 4 3− ν1, 959 cm−1; PO 4 3− NU7441 mouse ν4, 580 cm−1; CO 3 2− ν1, 1,072 cm−1), and the matrix factor was of a collagenous protein (amide I, 1,666 cm−1; amide III, 1,242 and 1,269 cm−1; CH2 wag, 1,450 cm−1; hydroxyproline, 855 and 878 cm−1; proline, 919 cm−1; HPO 4 2− , 1,005 cm−1; data not shown). While mineral properties such as the crystallinity were unchanged in all groups throughout the 16-week experiment, the cortical mineral to matrix ratio measured by PO 4 3− ν1/amide I was selleck inhibitor significantly lower, and Hypro/Pro ratio was significantly higher only in OVX-K at 8 weeks than the OVX controls. At 16 weeks, the PO 4 3− ν1/amide I ratio significantly increased in K to WO alone, revealing the decreased collagenous matrix by the MK-4 withdrawal. Hypro/Pro ratio was all similar at 16 weeks. Fig. 3 Analysis of femur diaphyseal cortex by confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy. PO 4 3− ν1 at 959 cm−1 was used as a mineral parameter and CUDC-907 in vitro the amide I at 1,666 cm−1, and hydroxyproline

(Hypro) at 855 and 878 cm−1 and proline (Pro) at 919 cm−1 were used as matrix parameters. The spectral band intensity by peak area, height for the Hypro/Pro ratio, or the band width for crystallinity was collected at each band as described in the “Materials and methods” section. The values are compared among 8- and 16-week samples, respectively, and between 8- and 16-week samples as in Fig. 2. Except for the Hypro/Pro ratio, which was based on the Fischer’s LSD test, statistical analysis used was the same as in Fig. 2 Changes in the trabecular architecture The effects of K to R on the distal metaphyseal (Fig. 2a) and the distal epiphyseal trabeculi (Table 2 and Fig. 4 ) were also quite significant. In Tables 1 and 2, the structural parameters by micro-CT analysis are summarized. In comparison to the OVX controls, sham group showed significant differences in

the BV, BS, BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, and FD (larger) and Tb.Sp (smaller) at 8 weeks. All three 8-week treatment groups, OVX-R, K, and R/K, showed significant difference from the OVX group in many parameters (Table 1). Of note, the concomitant administration, OVX-R/K, was no more effective than the OVX-K new or OVX-R monotherapy. The effect of 16-week treatment with MK-4 and/or risedronate was as follows. Both K to R and K to WO groups showed significantly better BV, BS, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp values in comparison to the OVX group (p < 0.01 in K to R). Figure 2a also shows that K to R and R to K groups were higher in the metaphyseal total BMD and BMC, while BMC values were also higher in the R to WO and R/K to WO. Risedronate raised metaphyseal total BMC by more than 50% in K to R during the later 8 weeks.

J Clin Invest 2005, 115:2099–107 CrossRefPubMed

4 Viagra

J Clin Invest 2005, 115:2099–107.CrossRefPubMed

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estimulantes y drogas de abuso en el deporte: la experiencia italiana [Use of stimulants and drugs of abuse in sport: the Italian experience]. Adicciones 2009, 21:239–42.PubMed 14. Taioli E: Use of permitted drugs in Italian professional soccer players. Br J Sports Med 2007, 41:439–41.CrossRefPubMed very 15. Alaranta A, Alaranta H, Helenius I: Use of prescription drugs in athletes. Sports Med 2008, 38:449–63.CrossRefPubMed 16. Mazanov J, Petroczi A, Holloway A, Bingham J: Towards an empirical model of performance enhancing supplement use: A pilot study among high performance UK athletes. J Sci Med Sport 2008, 11:185–90.CrossRefPubMed 17. Papadopoulos FC, Skalkidis I, Parkkari J, Petridou E, “”Sports Injuries”" European Union Group: Doping use among tertiary education students in six development countries. Eur J Epidemiol 2006, 21:307–13.