However, primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is observed only in 25% of SI patients. Whereas a definition of congenital hepatic fibrosis associated with ciliopathy and SIT is reported in the current literature, #HDAC inhibitors cancer randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# there is no data about the concurrence of SIT and SBC. Our case is possibly the first one in literature in terms of such SIT and SBC co-existence. Despite there is no clear
evident for the development of SBC in patients with SIT, considering the cases reported in literature, the following hypotheses may be proposed. The cilium is a hair like structure that extends from the cell surface into the extracellular space and it has an axoneme containing microtubules, and the microtubules connected with each other with dynein arms that provide ciliary movement . Electron microscopy of the ciliary microtubules frequently reveals absence or abnormalities of the outer and/or inner dynein arms. Especially the mutations of the gene dynein axonemal heavy chain 11 (DNAH 11) are thought to be associated with ciliopathy and SI . From various studies, it was reported that ciliary dyskinesia has a role in the pathogenesis of nephronophthisis (NPHP) and polycystic GANT61 renal disease (PCD) and the genes that are associated with renal cystic disease are important for left-right axis determination
of the body Tacrolimus (FK506) plan . NPHP may be associated with liver fibrosis; patients develop hepatomegaly and moderate portal fibrosis with mild bile duct proliferation, this pattern differs from that of classical congenital hepatic fibrosis, whereby biliary dysgenesis is prominent. Bile duct involvement in cystic kidney disease may be explained by the ciliary theory, because the epithelial cells lining bile ducts (cholangiocytes) possess primary cilia. It was suggested that especially the mutations of the gene NPHP2/inversin is associated with SI. SI and ciliopathy also cause biliary dysgenenesis, dilatation
of biliary tract and portal fibrosis [11, 12]. In our case, chronic rhinosinusitis and frequently recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, abnormal localization of the main biliary tract (on vertebral axis in ERCP) and moderate dilated biliary tracts support the hypothesis of SIT and ciliopathy association. There is no data about increased incidence of cholelithiasis in SIT patients. Furthermore, in several case reports, it was suggested that pancreatic ductal carcinoma, autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing cholangitis may develop [13, 14]. In our patient, there was not any pancreatic pathology. In magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), ERCP and endoscopic US examinations, there was no finding in favor of cholelithiasis, sclerosing cholangitis or malignity other than moderate choledochal dilatation.