The risks of PERV infection

The risks of PERV infection THZ1 and the potential role of retroviral restriction factors in xenotransplantation are reviewed in detail.”
“A series of nonbridged (cyclopentadienyl) (aryloxy) titanium(IV) complexes of the type, (eta(5)-Cp’)(OAr)TiCl2 [OAr = O-2,4,6-'Bu3C6H2 and Cp' = Me5C5 (1), Me4PhC5 (2), and 1,2-Ph-2-4-MeC5H2 (3)], were prepared and used for the copolymerization of ethylene with alpha-olefins (e. g., 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-octadecene) in presence of (AlBu3)-Bu-i and Ph3CB(C6F5)(4) (TIBA/B). The effect of the

catalyst structure, comonomer, and reaction conditions on the catalytic activity, comonomer incorporation, and molecular weight of the produced copolymers was examined. The substituents on the cyclopentadienyl group of the ligand in 1-3 play an important role in the catalytic activity Navitoclax and comonomer incorporation. The 1/TIBA/B catalyst system exhibits the highest catalytic activity, while the 3/TIBA/B catalyst system yields copolymers with the highest comonomer incorporation under the same conditions. The reactivity ratio product values are smaller than those by ordinary metallocene type, which indicates that the copolymerization of ethylene with 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-octadecene by the 1-3/TIBA/B catalyst systems does not proceed in a random manner. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121:

3085-3092, 2011″
“Single crystals of Zr-substituted Zn-Y (Zr-ZnY; Ba2Zn2ZrxFe12-xO22) were grown from the flux system of BaCO3 and B2O3 by a high temperature slow cooling flux method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the crystal structure with Zn-Y composition. The single crystals were characterized for magnetic and microwave

properties. The measured anisotropy BAY 73-4506 in vivo field (H-A) and the in-plane magnetization (sigma(s)) are 13 kOe and 52.0 emu/g, respectively. Ferrimagnetic resonance measurements show 18 Oe of linewidth (Delta H) at 9 GHz. The combination of low Delta H with a high H-A in Zr-ZnY hexaferrite is suitable for microwave devices, which can operate with low external biasing field. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3560885]“
“Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a severe complication of kidney transplantation that often causes graft failure. TMA may occur de novo, often triggered by immunosuppressive drugs and acute antibody-mediated rejection, or recur in patients with previous history of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Recurrent TMA is very rare in patients who had developed end-stage renal failure following HUS caused by Shiga-toxin producing E. scherichia coli, whereas disease recurrence is common in patients with atypical HUS (aHUS). The underlying genetic defect greatly impacts the risk of posttransplant recurrence in aHUS. Indeed recurrence is almost the rule in patients with mutations in genes encoding factor H or factor I, whereas patients with a mutation in membrane-cofactor-protein gene have a good transplant outcome.

Background: Patient-reported outcome measures are used increasing

Background: Patient-reported outcome measures are used increasingly in cancer care but successful implementation is dependent on a combination of sound psychometrics, guidance on clinical

meaning and good clinical judgement. The SDI, a 21-item instrument (SDI-21) developed for use in cancer care, demonstrated good psychometric properties. Rasch analysis of the SDI resulted in a 16-item interval scale of Social Distress (SD-16), which allowed for establishment of some clinical utility guidance but further work was required to optimise meaningful interpretation in clinical practice.

Data sources: Data were pooled from three studies investigating psychometrics and clinical utility of the SDI-21.

Statistical analyses: Common factor analysis was undertaken on SD-16 items. Subscales were derived Ruboxistaurin from the resulting factors and calculated by summing the scores of associated items. Subscale reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha.

Results: There were 652 participants. A three-factor model explaining 53.3% of the variance was extracted forming C59 the basis of the subscales: Everyday living, Money matters and Self and others. Subscale

reliability was good. In a clinical setting, a 2-point change in subscale score could be interpreted as a clinically meaningful difference.

Conclusion: The development of three subscales and clinically significant difference scores for the SD-16, combined with the previously developed cut-off points, improves the clinical utility of the SDI-21 when assessing social issues in oncology care. Copyright (C) 2010 LY294002 clinical trial John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Folic acid is an important vitamin (Vitamin B9) for biochemical processes such as DNA synthesis and repair. There is no

pharmacopeic method to assay this drug in capsules. It was proposed, developed and validated a method for determining the content of folic acid in capsules by reverse phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and robustness. The robustness was evaluated through experimental design approach.”
“BACKGROUND:

Inappropriate daily profile of blood pressure deteriorates the clinical outcome of hypertension and increases distant cardiovascular risk. The problem is important, especially in children and adolescents in whom early intervention helps to prevent complications of hypertension such as left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertensive retinopathy.OBJECTIVES:

To assess circadian blood pressure profile and basic determinants of inappropriate daily blood pressure variability in hypertensive children.METHODS:

The project was conducted retrospectively in 106 children six to 18 years of age (mean [+/- SD] 14.9 +/- 2.5 years) with essential hypertension and no use of antihypertensive drugs.

Methods: Comatose out-of-hospital

Methods: Comatose out-of-hospital Nepicastat ic50 cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who underwent brain MRI between January 2008 and July 2012 were identified from an OHCA registry. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) axial images were analyzed using a program to detect and characterize clusters of low ADC pixels from six brain regions including frontal, occipital, parietal, rolandic and temporal and basal ganglia region. Identified clusters were ranked according to size, mean ADC and minimum ADC to assess the regional maximum cluster size

(MCS), lowest mean ADC (LMEAN) and lowest minimum ADC (LMIN). Their power to predict poor outcome, defined as 6-month CPC 3 or higher, was assessed by contingency table analyses.

Results: 51 OHCA patients were eligible during the study period. The

sensitivities of MCS, LMEAN and LMIN to detect poor outcome varied according to brain region from 62.5 to 90.0%, 50.0 to 72.5% and 42.5 to 82.5% with their specificities set to 100%, respectively. The MCS of occipital region showed most favorable test profile (sensitivity 90%, specificity 100%; AUROC 0.940, 95% confidence interval 0.874-1.000).

Conclusion: The cluster-based computerized image analysis might be a simple but useful method for prediction of poor neurologic outcome. Future studies validating its prognostic performance are required. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To develop a transmastoid-posterior tympanotomy approach for the implantation of a penetrating auditory prosthesis SNS-032 in vitro in the most distal portion of the cochlear nerve.

Background: Animal studies suggest that penetrating cochlear Selleck BMS345541 nerve implants may overcome limitations of current cochlear implant systems. One step toward human implantation is the development of a suitable surgical approach.

Methods: In computer-rendered 3-dimensional (3-D) models (based on micro-CT scans of 10 human temporal bones), we simulated trajectories through the most basal part of the cochlea that gave access to the most distal portion of the cochlear nerve with minimal damage to intracochlear structures. We determined their vectors

with respect to the mid-modiolar axis and posterior round window edge and assessed if they intersected the chorda tympani nerve.

Results: The typical vector obtained with these 3-D models ran in an anterosuperior direction, through the inferior part of the facial recess and anterior round window edge. In 7 of 10 temporal bones, this trajectory intersected the chorda tympani nerve. Based on the vectors, dummy probes were implanted in 3 of 10 temporal bones, and the need for chorda tympani removal was confirmed in accordance with the 3-D models. Postoperative micro-CT scans revealed that all probes were successfully implanted in the cochlear nerve, whereas the osseous spiral lamina and basilar membrane were preserved.

After a parotid duct transposition (PDT) surgery, these dogs expe

After a parotid duct transposition (PDT) surgery, these dogs experienced excessive saliva production and abundant salivary precipitates, which resulted in epiphora, moist dermatitis, blepharospasm, and keratitis. In an effort to decrease saliva production, a partial ligation of the transposed duct at the level of the parotid gland was performed. Two or three accessory

branches to the primary parotid duct were ligated at the level of the salivary gland.

Results The four cases were three Yorkshire terriers and a Chihuahua. The average age of the four patients was 2.5 years. Partial ligation of accessory branches of the parotid duct at the level of the parotid gland after a PDT in this study demonstrated improved ocular comfort, decreased salivary precipitates, and adequate Schirmer tear test results without marked epiphora in three of the four animals. MLN4924 mw The male Yorkshire had epiphora

after the initial partial ligations of two accessory branches were placed at the level of the parotid gland. To correct the excessive salivary flow, two additional ligatures were placed at a later date, which resolved the epiphora.

Conclusion Partial ligation of the parotid duct at the level of the parotid gland proved to be an effective technique in moderating the salivation in these four patients with excessive salivary secretions after PDT.”
“Conjoined twinning is a unique complication of monochorionic FGFR inhibitor pregnancy. This report describes the clinical findings in two cases of conjoined twins, and discusses their management. One case involved thoracopagus

complicating a triplet pregnancy, and the other involved cephalothoracopagus, in which the outcome was intrauterine fetal death due to abruptio placentae after amniocentesis. Recent improvements in ultrasound imaging have facilitated the diagnosis of conjoined twins as early as the first trimester. Although many mothers opt to terminate pregnancy when conjoined twins are diagnosed, a few do not, as in the cases described. In such cases, pregnancy management, including accurate determination of the degree of organ fusion and psychological follow up, are important. On the basis of the two present cases, IGF-1R inhibitor we present a systematic flow diagram for management of conjoined twin pregnancy from the time of diagnosis until delivery.”
“Chlorimuron-ethyl is a type of long-residual herbicide applied widely to soybean fields in China, but little information is available about the long-term impact of this herbicide on soil nitrogen-transforming microbial communities. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from three treatments (no, 5-year and 10-year application of chlorimuron-ethyl) in a continuously cropped soybean field.

Unlike those of lipoproteins, which induce inflammation via Toll-

Unlike those of lipoproteins, which induce inflammation via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), the pathologic effects of GGPL-III are poorly understood. RA and metal allergies are chronic inflammatory diseases in which autoantigens have been implicated. Here, we examined the effects of chemically synthesized GGPL-III in murine arthritis and allergy models. GGPL-III alone exhibited little inflammatory

effect, but promoted both collagen-induced arthritis and nickel (Ni) allergy, although less powerfully than Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The augmenting effect of GGPL-III on Ni allergy was present in mice deficient in either T cells or active TLR4, but it was markedly weaker in mice deficient in macrophages, interleukin-1, or the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase than in their control strains. These results suggest that GGPL-III Z-DEVD-FMK may play roles in some types of chronic diseases via the innate immune system.”
“Background: This

study compared the lifetime costs for peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients in Taiwan..

Methods: Using the National Health Insurance (NHI) database of all end-stage renal disease patients on maintenance dialysis registered from July 1997 to December 2005, we matched eligible PD patients with eligible HD patients on age, sex, and diabetes status. The matched patients were followed until 31 December 2006. Patients were Emricasan solubility dmso excluded if they were less than 18 years of age, had been diagnosed with cancer before dialysis, or had been dialyzed at centers or clinics other than hospitals. Outcomes-including life expectancy, total lifetime costs, and costs per life-year paid by the NHI-were estimated and compared.

Results: The 3136 pairs of matched PD and HD patients had a mean age of 53.2

+/- 15.4 years. The total lifetime cost for PD patients (US$ 139 360 +/- US$ 8 336) was significantly lower than that for HD patients (US$ 185 235 +/- US$ 9 623, p < 0.001). Except for patients with diabetes (who had a short life expectancy), A-1155463 concentration the total lifetime cost was significantly lower for PD patients than for HD patients regardless of sex and age (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: In Taiwan, the total lifetime costs paid by the NHI were lower for PD than for HD patients.”
“Intracranial aspergillosis is a rare pathologic condition, difficult to treat and often fatal which generally affects immunocompromised hosts. High-dose steroid therapy represents a risk factor for opportunistic infections. We report a case of fatal brain abscess in an immunocompetent patient with a previous diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in whom a high-dose steroid course has probably contributed to the development of the fungal infection. Despite steroids’ relative safety, clinicians must remain alert to potential fatal complication that could arise from their use.

The complexity of this pathway is due to the direct involvement o

The complexity of this pathway is due to the direct involvement of three proteins (RcsC, RcsD and RcsB) in the phosphorelay and the presence of multiple accessory proteins with important roles in modulating

the inputs and outputs associated with this signaling pathway. This article will discuss the various inputs and outputs associated with the Rcs phosphorelay and also present a model suggesting an important role for this signaling pathway in the temporal S63845 inhibitor control of virulence in Salmonella enterica and blofilm formation in Escherichia coli.”
“Over the past few decades, our understanding of the bacterial protein toxins that modulate G proteins has advanced tremendously through extensive biochemical and structural analyses. This article provides CP-456773 manufacturer an updated survey of the various toxins that target G proteins, ending with a focus on recent

mechanistic insights in our understanding of the deamidating toxin family. The dermonecrotic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) was recently added to the list of toxins that disrupt G-protein signal transduction through selective deamidation of their targets. The 03 deamidase domain of PMT has no sequence similarity to the deamidase domains of the dermonecrotic toxins from Escherichia coil (cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF)1-3), Yersinia (CNFY) and Bordetella (dermonecrotic toxin). The structure of PMT-C3 belongs to a family of transglutaminase-like SRT2104 inhibitor proteins, with active site Cys-His-Asp catalytic triads distinct from E. coli CNF1.”
“Amorphous ferromagnetic CoFeB and CoFeSiB layers with various Co concentrations were employed as free layers of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), and their magnetization switching performances were compared. Both analytical measurements and micromagnetic modeling efforts were carried out to understand the dependence of magnetization switching field (H(sw)) on Co concentration. In overall, the CoFeSiB free layered MTJs showed a lower H(sw) compared to that of the CoFeB ones. This is due to the fact that CoFeSiB possesses a lower saturation magnetization

than CoFeB and, moreover, its magnetization switching process shows coherent switching. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3565404]“
“Background: Arrhythmia burden in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) after monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (mVT) is higher than in patients with other indications. We investigated the long-term arrhythmia profile in this subset of patients.

Methods: Fifty-two patients with an ICD implanted after mVT were followed up for at least 3 months. The cycle lengths (CLs) of the tachycardias recovered from the device memory were compared with the CL of the index arrhythmia. Morphological analysis of the intracardiac electrograms was performed and the response to antitachycardia pacing (ATP) was also assessed.

The results indicate that the TM atoms prefer to be at the middle

The results indicate that the TM atoms prefer to be at the middle position of the NWs and have no tendency to form clusters. The formation energies of doped NWs were smaller www.selleckchem.com/products/Romidepsin-FK228.html than that of the pristine NW, indicating that doing process is an exothermic reaction. All of the NWs had atomlike magnetic moments mainly due to the 3d component of the TM atoms. Significant hybridization was observed between

the d states of the TM atoms and the p states of the S atoms. Based on the half-metallic characteristic and long-range ferromagnetic interactions, we demonstrated that the ZnS NWs doped with Cr atoms have great potential for successful implementation into spintronic devices. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3573388]“
“In the present study, the curing behavior of polycardanol prepared by enzymatic oxidative polymerization of thermally treated cashew nut shell liquid, which can be available AZD1480 in vitro from naturally renewable resources, was explored in the presence of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and cobalt naphthenate (Co-Naph). The curing behavior was monitored varying Co-Naph concentration and curing temperature by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The result revealed that the characteristic absorption bands were significantly

affected by the given curing condition, resulting mainly from the unsaturated moiety in the polycardanol molecule. The extent of curing of polycardanol https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AC-220.html strongly depended on curing temperature, showing a typically sigmoidal curve reaching almost 1.0 upon processing at 200 degrees C for

120 min. The thermal curing conditions for preparing polycardanol with an optimal state of cure were provided in the work. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 2774-2778, 2011″
“Depletional induction therapies are routinely used to prevent acute rejection and improve transplant outcome. The effects of depleting agents on T-cell subsets and subsequent T-cell reconstitution are incompletely defined. We used flow cytometry to examine the effects of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) on the peripheral T-cell repertoire of pediatric and adult renal transplant recipients. We found that while rATG effectively depleted CD45RA+CD27+ naive and CD45RO+CD27+ central memory CD4+ T cells, it had little effect on CD45RO+CD27- CD4+ effector memory or CD45RA+CD31-, CD45RO+CD27+ and CD45RO+CD27- CD8+ T cell subsets. When we performed a kinetic analysis of CD31+ recent thymic emigrants and CD45RA+/RO+ T cells, we found evidence for both thymopoiesis and homeostatic proliferation contributing to immune reconstitution. We additionally examined the impact of rATG on peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cells.

Here, associations

Here, associations buy LOXO-101 between polymorphic molecular markers and life-long anti-EHV-1/4 antibody

immune responses were analyzed in a model EHV-infected population of the Old Kladruber horses. Two-dimensional analysis including overall mean titers and titer dynamics expressed by differences between spring and autumn titers allowed identification of low-responders. 50 randomly selected microsatellites and nine single nucleotide polymorphisms in nine immunity-related candidate genes were genotyped. Due to differences (p < 0.001) in antibody titers between two color varieties of Old Kladruber horses, separate association studies were performed in the two sub-populations by using the Fisher’s exact test. In black horses, the interleukin 4 receptor and MxA protein coding genes, and the microsatellite Z-IETD-FMK price TKY325 were associated with the responder status. In the grey population, the microsatellite TKY343 showed significant association with anti-EHV antibody responsiveness after Bonferroni corrections. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Copolymers (polyoxymethylene) were prepared by cationic copolymerization of 1,3,5-trioxane (TOX) with 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) in the presence of Maghnite-H+ (Mag-H+) in solution. Maghnite is a Montmorillonite sheet silicate clay, with exchanged

protons to produce Mag-H+. Various techniques, including H-1-NMR, see more C-13-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and Ubbelohde viscometer were used to elucidate structural characteristics properties of the resulting copolymers. The influence of the amount of catalyst, of dioxolane (DOX), temperature, solvent, and time of copolymerization on yield and on intrinsic viscosity of copolymers was

studied. The yield of copolymerization depends on the amount of Mag-H+ used and the reaction time. We also propose mechanisms involved in the synthesis of copolymer (polyoxymethylene). (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 2820-2827, 2010″
“The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before,48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis).

As expected, the amount of phenol produced per gram biomass (the

As expected, the amount of phenol produced per gram biomass (the specific productivity, mmol g(-1) L(-1)) remains constant in time for all fermentations. The use of pertraction for in situ phenol removal is compared to in situ second phase extraction, in situ solvent impregnated resins and in-stream pertraction. Although the system shows promising results, further modifications such as using a solvent with a higher partition coefficient can improve the overall performance. (c)

2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been implicated in regulating various aspects of plant development, including somatic cytokinesis. The evolution of expanded plant MAPK gene families has enabled the diversification of potential NU7441 supplier MAPK cascades, but functionally overlapping components

are also well documented. Here we report that Arabidopsis MPK4, an MAPK that was previously described as a regulator of disease resistance, can interact with and be phosphorylated by the cytokinesis-related MAP kinase kinase, AtMKK6. In mpk4 mutant plants, anthers can develop normal microspore mother cells (MMCs) and peripheral supporting tissues, but the MMCs fail to form a normal intersporal callose wall after male meiosis, and thus cannot complete meiotic cytokinesis. Nevertheless, the multinucleate mpk4 microspores subsequently proceed through mitotic cytokinesis, resulting in enlarged mature pollen grains that possess increased sets of the tricellular structure. This pollen development phenotype is reminiscent PI3K inhibitor of those observed in both atnack2/tes/stud and anq1/mkk6 mutants, and protein-protein interaction analysis

defines a putative signalling module linking AtNACK2/TES/STUD, AtANP3, AtMKK6 and AtMPK4 together as a cascade that facilitates male-specific meiotic cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.”
“Since its first identification in the early 1960s, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as a major human pathogen. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of MRSA in Alexandria Main University Hospital and to settle on a simple, rapid, accurate and cost-effective phenotypic test for the detection NCT-501 ic50 of MRSA from clinical specimens. One hundred S. aureus isolates, including 71 MRSA isolates, as confirmed by PCR for the presence or absence of the mecA gene as the gold standard, were isolated from patients from different departments at Alexandria Main University Hospital over a six month-period. They were tested for methicillin resistance by comparing five phenotypic tests (Mannitol salt agar-cefoxitin [MSA-FOX], oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion, oxacillin MIC by broth microdilution and latex agglutination for PBP2a) to the gold standard genotypic test (detection of mecA gene by PCR).

In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0 08 of the em

In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0.08 of the emissivity, including similar to 61% of the transmittance in the visible EPZ5676 solubility dmso region (wavelength: 550 nm). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3636107]“
“High-light intensities and temperatures of the warm climate regions of Australia and elsewhere have a major effect on the growth and development of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). The objective of this research was to assess interactions between the light and seasonal temperatures by shading some vines and comparing these with vines exposed to high-light intensities. Canopy temperatures

were monitored using infrared radiometers and budbreak, phenology, growth, yield, berry ripening and gas exchange determined over three growing seasons. Results showed canopies Crenolanib chemical structure were generally about 4 degrees C cooler than air and shading extended this cooling. Irradiance, irrespective of seasonal temperatures, had no effect on

time of budbreak, shoot phenology, stem growth, yield and bunch fresh weights while bunch and leaf dry weights were reduced in low-light. Bunch ripening was initially delayed by low-light but thereafter the ripening process was highly temperature-dependent. Rates increased linearly with increasing temperature in both low and high-light and were optimal at about 35 degrees C. Maximum photosynthetic capacity was impaired by low irradiance, in accordance with shade leaf attributes, and attributable to stomatal closure. No effects of the low photosynthetic capacity apparently

carried-over to sugar accumulation, consistent with the strong sink capacity of bunches. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Using first-principles density functional theory based method we have performed a systematic investigations of the electronic structures, the structural and magnetic properties related to shape memory applications for Mn2NiAl,Mn2NiGa,Mn2NiSn and Mn2NiIn alloys. Our results confirm that Angiogenesis inhibitor all the alloys undergo a volume conserving martensitic transformation at low temperatures and that the low temperature stable phase is a non-modulated tetragonal one. The relative stabilities of the martensitic phases and the magnetic properties differ considerably for Mn2NiAl, Mn2NiGa and Mn2NiIn and Mn2NiSn. Details of the electronic structures suggest that the differences in hybridizations between the magnetic components are responsible for these trends. Quantitative estimates of the energetics and the magnetizations indicate that Mn2NiGa and Mn2NiAl are more promising candidates for shape memory applications. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3639301]“
“Increasing energy prices demand a renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuel that is environmentally and commercially sustainable.