longipalpis saliva have been identified , suggesting that intensive efforts are required for the identification of salivary compounds responsible for the protective effect of sand fly saliva on
leishmaniasis. Conclusion In summary, the present study provides strong evidence that different Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva inoculation schemes may skew the initial cellular responses, which is reflected by parasitic survival or host resistance to infection. Thus, we believe that comprehending the effects of sand fly saliva on the host immune response induced by saliva may help in the generation of new vaccine strategies that can block the effects of see more saliva and prevent Leishmania establishment in the host. Acknowledgements We are thankful to FAPESP, CAPES, CNPq, INCTV and FAEPA for their financial support. References 1. Beach R, Kiilu G, Leeuwenburg J: Modification of sand fly biting behavior by Leishmania click here leads to increased parasite transmission. AmJTrop Med Hyg 1985,34(2):278–282. 2. Ribeiro JM: Role of saliva in blood-feeding by arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol 1987, 32:463–478.PubMedCrossRef 3. Titus RG, Ribeiro JM: The role of vector saliva in transmission of arthropod-borne disease. Parasitol Today 1990,6(5):157–160.PubMedCrossRef 4. Ribeiro JM: Blood-feeding arthropods: live syringes or invertebrate
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