Such instability may manifest itself in terms of genomic

Such instability may manifest itself in terms of genomic selleck compound activity that is no longer responsive to environmental influences or lead to genomic activity that is increased as a result of chronic stress, as in accelerated aging (Hunter et al., 2013 and Hunter et al., 2012). Loss of reversal of stress induced structural plasticity, as seen in aging rats (Bloss et al., 2010) is one example; and increased expression of inflammatory mediators together with loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic function (Bloss et al., 2008) is another. In contrast, there are examples of epigenetic activation of neural activity. Indeed, acute swim

stress as well as novelty exposure induce an activational histone mark in dentate gyrus, namely, acetylation of lysine residue 14 and phosphorylation of the serine residue on histone H3, which is dependent

on both GR and NMDA activation and is associated with c-fos buy Navitoclax induction among other genes (Reul and Chandramohan, 2007). Acetylation of another lysine residue, K27 on histone H3, is associated with increased expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu2, in hippocampus of Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (Nasca et al., 2013). mGlu2 is known to exert an inhibitory tone on glutamate release from synapses. The acetylating agent l-acetylcarnitine (LAC), a naturally occurring substance, behaves as an antidepressant, at least in part by the epigenetic up-regulation of mGlu2 receptors via this epigenetic mechanism. LAC caused a rapid and long-lasting

antidepressant effect in both FSL rats and in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, which, respectively, model genetic and environmentally induced depression. Beyond the epigenetic action on the acetylated H3K27 bound to the Grm2 promoter, LAC also increased acetylation of NF-ĸB-p65 subunit, thereby enhancing the transcription of Grm2 gene encoding for the mGlu2 receptor in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The involvement of NF-ĸB in LAC antidepressant-like effects supports a growing literature that shows depression may be associated with a chronic inflammatory response (Dantzer et al., 2008). Importantly, LAC reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test and increased sucrose preference until as early as 3 d of treatment, whereas 14 d of treatment were needed for the antidepressant effect of chlorimipramine (Nasca et al., 2013). This suggests LAC is important for stress resilience. A recent study from our laboratory has shown that hippocampal expression of mGlu2, is also a marker of individual susceptibility to mood disorders. Interestingly, mGlu2 is the same receptor regulating inhibitory glutamate tone that has been shown to be elevated by treatment with LAC in FSL rats to reverse depressive-like behavior (Nasca et al., 2013).

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