All authors have none to declare “
“Osteoarthritis (OA) is

All authors have none to declare. “
“Osteoarthritis (OA) is degenerative joint disease, which affects millions of people in the world. It is a complex disease whose pathogenesis, changes the tissue homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone, determine the predominance of destructive processes. A key role in the pathophysiology of articular cartilage is played by cell/extra-cellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Findings from studies indicate that age, gender, joint impairment, reduced range of motion (ROM), joint stiffness, and pain, contribute to increased disability.1 and 2 The most common symptom is a chronic selleck compound pain,3 during development

of knee joint inflammation the concentration of Excitatory amino acids (EAA) especially Glutamate is increased which is released from sensory neurons in the spinal cord contribute to hyperalgesia and pain in the affected area.4 Several studies have

found that there is no correlation between radiological images and pain parameters, but the medial side of the knee showed most sensitization in patients with strong/severe knee OA, the degree of pain can be measured with temporal summation of pressure pain instrument.5 The concept of joint stiffness in arthritis and related pathology diseases was introduced in the early 1960s.6 and 7 It is revealed that surface-active see more phospholipid (SAPL) (synovial surfactant) capable

Methisazone of reducing friction to the very low levels and provide lubricant in normal joint moreover, this lining is deficient in osteoarthritis and lead to stiffness of joint.8 and 9 Quadriceps muscle strengthening is an important protective function at knee joints. Cross-sectional studies suggest that strength is correlate with physical function and that increasing quadriceps strength reduces pain and improves function. Evidence suggests that thigh muscle strength may protect against knee joint damage and progression of existing OA.10 and 11 Arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI) is a presynaptic, constant reflex inhibition of musculature surrounding a joint after damage to joint as it restricts full muscle activity and prevent the quadriceps strengthening, weaker quadriceps have been associated with an increased rate of loading at the knee joint.12 AMI is caused by activity in multiple inhibitory pathways, its severity may vary according to the degree of joint damage.13 Due to pathological changes of articular cartilage in knee joint resulted from many causes leads to blockage and edema of soft tissues, disturbance of blood circulation, erosion and injury of chondrocyte, and even increase of bony density and formation of cystic changes, resulting in swelling and pain.14 OA has a multifactorial etiology, can be considered the product of interaction between systemic and local factors.

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