Participant characteristics for both groups are presented
in Table 1. All subjects gave their written informed consent to participate in this study, which was approved by the university’s institutional review board. To minimize influence on the immune system, participants in both experiments adhered to instructions before MK-1775 in vivo attending Selleckchem QNZ exercise testing to not ingest caffeine, alcohol, or anti-inflammatory medications 24 hr before testing. In addition, participants agreed to abstain for 30 days from using large doses of vitamin/mineral supplements (>100% of recommended dietary allowances) until after the third exercise session. Participants were instructed not to engage in exercise during the 24 hr before each testing session. Table 1 Participant characteristics, M ± SD Characteristic Experiment (n = 10) selleck chemicals Age (years) 21.0 ± 2.2 Height (cm) 174.3 ± 6.2 Body weight (kg) 79.6 ± 11.1 Body fat (%) 13.9 ± 3.7 1-RM leg press (kg) 313.2 ± 66.9 1-RM bench press (kg) 94.8 ± 14.5 10-RM leg curl (kg) 53.4 ± 11.0 10-RM lat pull-down (kg) 69.3 ± 8.6 Years of training 4.5 ± 1.5 Participants were excluded from the study if they had any immunocompromised condition such as an autoimmune disease (i.e., lupus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or had been diagnosed
with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Participants were also excluded if they were taking prescription medications, using steroids, using ergogenic supplements (e.g., creatine) for at least 1 month before testing or had
indicated that they experienced high psychological stress. Before each testing session, participants who displayed any symptoms associated with URTI illness that would alter immune-cell parameters were excluded from the study. Procedures Strength assessment One week before testing in both experiments, measurements of baseline height, PRKACG body weight, and body composition via skinfold . One-repetition maximums (1-RMs) using the 1-RM testing protocol  were determined for the leg press (Cybex International, Medway, MA), bench press (Sorinex Exercise Equipment, Irmo, SC), and 10-RMs were determined for the latissimus dorsi pull-down (York, PA) and leg curl (Cybex). The protocol for the 10-RM test was similar to the 1-RM, but each set required 10 repetitions. Subjects were also provided with dietary examples to follow the two days prior to the resistance exercise protocol . Dietary control For two days prior to testing sessions, participants were required to adhere to a macronutrient diet that consisted of the following percentages of their total energy intake: 40% CHO, 30% fat, and 30% protein. An example of the macronutrient meal plan was provided to the participants at the first session. For 2 days before the testing sessions, participants adhered to macronutrient diet  provided, and recorded their food intake.