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growth factor receptor mutations in the pleural effusion of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Cancer Sci 2006, 97: 642–648.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests GE, ED, GM, LF, JS, MC, MO and GS are employees and shareholders of AstraZeneca. LK is a former employee of AstraZeneca and has no additional competing interests to declare. Authors’ contributions GE carried out the molecular Navitoclax order genetic studies and drafted the manuscript. ED, GM, LK, LF and JS carried out the molecular analysis. MC, MO and GS participated in the design and coordination of the study. JM drafted the manuscript. All authors reviewed the draft manuscript and read and approved the final version for submission.”
“Introduction Dickkopf-1(DKK-1) gene was first discovered in 1998 as a head formation inducer and an antagonist of Wnt signaling pathway . In normal
tissues of human body, DKK-1 mRNA was highly expressed in placenta and at a very low level in prostate only [2, 3]. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of DKK-1 protein in tumorigenesis. Its exact role in tumorigenesis, Carbohydrate however, still remains unclear. Several studies reported that the expression level of DKK-1 in different tumors was different and its biological functions were different as well [4–8]. DDK-1 expression was confirmed in several cancer cell lines derived from breast and other common cancers. DDK-1 protein secretion was documented in breast, prostate and lung cancers, but was negligible in melanoma . The DKK-1 concentration was significantly higher in the serum of lung cancer patients than in that of other malignant tumor patients or healthy people.