In cases where it is important to know the exact proportions of F

In cases where it is important to know the exact proportions of Firmicutes, it may be best to use the phenol-bead beating or PSP methods. iii) Use of either 454 GS FLX or 454 Titanium yielded similar patterns dominated by the subject

of origin, so either sequencing method can be used depending again on convenience. iv) When carrying out comparisons among multiple data sets it is important to be aware of differences among primer regions, and if possible to avoid mixing data from the v6-v9 region with data from other regions. v) The differences among subjects was the most prominent source of variation among communities. Consequently, any attempt to detect the effects of additional factors on microbiome composition, such as disease state, diet, drug use, etc., will need to take in to account the substantial

variation among individuals. selleck chemical Methods Sample collection Ten healthy adult volunteers (at least 18 years old) were recruited to provide a single stool sample within the Center for Clinical BI-D1870 cost and Translational Research at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Exclusion criteria included having had diarrhea within one week prior to the sample collection, consumption of any antibiotics within four weeks prior to sample collection, or any prior diagnosis with inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac Paclitaxel mouse sprue, or other chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestines. After providing informed consent, each participant completed a brief survey describing their medical history and demographic characteristics. Each participant provided a single stool specimen. All specimens were collected using a collection hat that separated

the fecal content from urine or the toilet water. From the specimen provided, a research coordinator immediately removed six samples from the surface of the specimen. Samples 2 through 6 were obtained to be at least 1 cm away from the location of the first sample. All samples were collected in a Faeces Container with Screw Cap (Cat#80.734.001, Sarstedt, Newton, NC) and the sample was leveled with a wooden spatula. The first three samples were placed in empty vials and immediately stored at -80°C. Two specimens were placed in empty tubes and stored in a Styrofoam cooler filled with ice packs. These specimens were Selleckchem VRT752271 transferred to a -80°C freezer after 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. The final sample was placed in a vial filled with stool stabilizer from the PSP SPIN Stool DNA Plus kit (Invitek). The specimen was shaken but the specimen was not fully dissolved into the stabilizer solution. After 48 hours of storage at room temperature, the specimen was transferred to a -80°C freezer. Three patients had an extra sample collected and processed immediately.

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