A comparison of loop electrosurgical excision procedures between human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and seronegative women. Low Genit Tract Dis 2011; 15: 37–41. 31 Reimers LL, Sotardi S, Daniel D et al. Outcomes after an excisional procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women. Gynecol Oncol 2010; 119: 92–97. 32 Kabir F, van Gelderen C, McIntyre J, Michelow P, Turton D, Adam Y. Cervical
NVP-LDE225 intra-epithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive women after excision of the transformation zone – does the grade change? S Afr Med J 2012; 102: 757–760. 33 Lima MI, Tafuri A, Araújo AC, de Miranda Lima L, Melo VH. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia recurrence after conization in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2009; 104: 100–104. 34 Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Management of cervical cancer: a national clinical guideline. January 2008. Available at: http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign99.pdf (accessed December 2013). 35 Lomolisa P, Smith T, Guidozzi F. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and invasive cervical cancer
in South Africa. Gynecol Oncol 2000; 77: 460–463. 36 Simonds HM, Wright JD, du Toit N, Neugut AI, Jacobson JS. Completion of and early response to chemoradiation among selleck chemicals llc human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma in South Africa. Cancer 118: 2971–2979. The updated published UK guidelines for the management of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of people living with HIV infection, produced jointly by BHIVA, BASHH and FFPRHC, includes advice on anal cancer in HIV infection (available online at www.bhiva.org). The key points and recommendations Olopatadine are included below . All major HIV units should develop clinical guidelines for the management of suspected anal cancer and pre- cancer. All major
HIV units should develop either local clinical expertise or referral pathways for suspected anal cancer and pre-cancer. The role of annual anal cytology and anoscopy is not yet proven; however, patients should be encouraged to check and report any lumps noticed in the anal canal. In addition, the management of anal cancer is included in the updated Guidance on Cancer Services Improving Outcomes in Colorectal Cancers published by NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) . The recommendations make no reference to HIV but are included below. Anal cancer is a rare disease and specific expertise is important to optimize outcomes for patients. All patients with anal cancer, including those who have undergone local excision, should therefore be referred to multidisciplinary anal cancer teams that can provide specialist management. Patients for whom curative treatment is likely to be appropriate should have a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis or pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).