75 However, the tools to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmac

75 However, the tools to assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic tests are still insufficiently developed.76 Consensus TDM should be limited to situations where it may be expected that the result will help to solve a therapeutic problem. There are many indications for using TDM (Table II) in antidepressant pharmacotherapy, such as suspicion of noncompliance or

intoxication. In pharmacovigilance programs, TDM may be considered as a valid indication for all drugs and groups of patients. To recommend TDM as routine monitoring, it must be proven that TDM is of value. Five levels of recommendation for TDM were defined, which range from “strongly recommended” to “not recommended.” In a second step, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a recommendation tailored to the individual drug was defined. Table II. General Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical indications for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antidepressants.11 Levels of recommendations to use TDM as routine monitoring The therapeutic strategy will only be improved by the use of TDM, if the already mentioned

criteria are fulfilled.60 There is sufficient evidence that TDM can be useful Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for patients treated with antidepressants, as concluded by the authors of this consensus guideline, after a careful examination of the literature: (i) guidelines; (ii) meta-analyses; (iii) prospective studies on the clinical effectiveness of drugs in which drug http://www.selleckchem.com/products/bgj398-nvp-bgj398.html plasma concentrations were reported; and (iv) pharmacokinetic studies. However, the latter often do not allow

definition of a therapeutic plasma concentration range, in the absence of clinical data. Five levels of recommendation to use TDM as routine monitoring were defined as follows, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as reported earlier.10 1. Strongly recommended Established therapeutic range Level of evidence: Controlled clinical trials have shown benefit Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of TDM; reports on toxic effects at “supratherapeutlc” plasma concentrations. Clinical consequences: At therapeutic plasma concentrations highest probability of response; at “subtherapeutic” plasma concentrations response rate similar to placebo; at plasma concentrations higher than therapeutlc concentrations increasing risk of adverse effects. 2. Recommended Suggested therapeutic ranges obtained from plasma concentrations at therapeutically effective doses (fixed dose studies). Level of evidence: At least Nature Methods one welldeslgned prospective study with well-defined outcome criteria reports intoxications at “suprather apeutlc” plasma concentrations. Clinical consequences: TDM most probably will optimize response in nonresponders: at “subtherapeutic” plasma concentrations risk of poor response; at “supratherapeutlc” plasma concentrations risk of adverse effects and/or decreased response. 3. Useful Suggested therapeutic ranges are plasma concentrations at effective doses obtained from steady-state pharmacokinetic studies.

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