t(wN) is determined for various pressures, i.e., for 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 Pa. For this conditions also the internal plasma parameters electron density ne and electron temperature
T-e are determined with the Langmuir probe and the rotational temperature T-rot(N2) of N-2 is determined with the optical emission spectroscopy. For T-rot(N2), a procedure is presented to evaluate the spectrum of the transition nu’ = 0 Vadimezan – bigger than nu ” = 2 of the second positive system (C-3 Pi(u) – bigger than B-3 Pi(g)) of N-2. With this method, a gas temperature of 610K is determined. For both mass spectrometers, an increase of the wall loss times of atomic nitrogen with increasing pressure is observed. The wall loss time measured with the first mass spectrometer in the radial center of the cylindrical plasma vessel increases linearly from 0.31 ms for 3 Pa to 0.82 ms for 10 Pa. The wall loss time measured with the second mass spectrometer (further away from the discharge) is about 4 times higher. A model is applied to describe the measured t(wN).
The main loss mechanism of atomic nitrogen for the considered pressure is diffusion to the wall. The surface loss probability beta(N) of atomic nitrogen on stainless steel was derived from t(wN) and is found to be 1 for the present conditions. The difference in wall loss times measured with the mass spectrometers SB203580 on different positions in the plasma chamber is attributed to the different diffusion lengths.”
“Detection of chromosomal aberrations from a single cell by array comparative genomic hybridization (single-cell array CGH), instead of from a population of cells,
is an emerging technique. However, such detection is challenging because of the genome artifacts and the DNA amplification process inherent to the single cell approach. buy VX-680 Current normalization algorithms result in inaccurate aberration detection for single-cell data. We propose a normalization method based on channel, genome composition and recurrent genome artifact corrections. We demonstrate that the proposed channel clone normalization significantly improves the copy number variation detection in both simulated and real single-cell array CGH data.”
“Lipolysis is an important metabolic pathway controlling energy homeostasis through degradation of triglycerides stored in lipid droplets and release of fatty acids. Lipid droplets of mammalian cells are coated with one or more members of the PAT protein family, which serve important functions in regulating lipolysis. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms by which PAT family members, perilipin A, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP), and LSDP5, control lipolysis catalyzed by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), a major lipase in adipocytes and several non-adipose cells. We applied fluorescence microscopic tools to analyze proteins in situ in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching and anisotropy Forster resonance energy transfer.