The synergistic effect with nystatin was determined similarly Th

The synergistic effect with nystatin was determined similarly. The effect of licorice compounds on biofilm formation was evaluated using a microplate assay and crystal violet staining. The effect of licorice compounds Selleck Lumacaftor on yeast-hyphal transition was determined by microscopic observation. The toxicity of licorice compounds towards oral epithelial cells was evaluated with an MTT assay. Glabridin and licochalcone A showed antifungal activity on C. albicans while glycyrrhizic acid had no effect. Complete growth inhibition occurred with sub-inhibitory concentrations

of nystatin with either glabridin or licochalcone A. Biofilm formation was inhibited by 35–60% in the presence of licochalcone A (0.2 μg ml−1). A strong inhibitory effect (>80%) on hyphal formation was observed with licochalcone A or glabridin (100 μg ml−1). Glabridin and licochalcone A at high concentrations showed toxicity towards oral epithelial cells. In summary, glabridin HSP phosphorylation and licochalcone

A are potent antifungal agents and may act in synergy with nystatin to inhibit growth of C. albicans. Licochalcone A has a significant effect on biofilm formation, while both licochalcone A and glabridin prevented yeast-hyphal transition in C. albicans. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of licochalcone A and glabridin for C. albicans oral infections. “
“Caspofungin is a member of the echinocandin class of antifungal compounds that inhibit 1,3-β-d-Glucan synthase. As patient exposure to caspofungin (CAS) broadens, the number of infecting strains with reduced susceptibility to this drug is expected to rise. In the present study, the in vitro effects of varying concentrations of CAS

against Candida albicans isolates presenting reduced susceptibility to CAS were studied in comparison with a reference strain. Two C. albicans isolates presenting high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC = 8 μg ml−1) were selected: one isolate obtained in the laboratory under continuous antifungal selection pressure (CaIn-R) and one clinical isolate (CaClin-R) from a patient with a therapeutic failure. Results showed that after 24 h of CAS exposure, CaIn-R and CaClin-R presented a partial growth inhibition in comparison with the reference strain. Moreover, scanning electron Sorafenib clinical trial microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the cell walls of CaIn-R and CaClin-R were less altered than that of the reference strain. These observations suggested that although CaIn-R and CaClin-R cells were misshapen after CAS exposure, cell lysis was limited after 24 h of treatment indicating higher survival ability for CaIn-R and CaClin-R in the presence of CAS. “
“This study describes the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from patients with chronic meningitis who were admitted to 16 Malaysian hospitals, from 2003 to 2004. Of the 96 cryptococcal cases reported over the 2-year period, 74 (77.1%) patients were male and 45 (46.

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