The density of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT) wa

The density of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (vAChT) was assessed with (−)-[3H]vesamicol. Cerebral blood flow was measured by coloured microsphere method. Results: Cerebral blood flow and brain oxygen delivery were transiently reduced early after FP-TBI (P < 0.05). TBI caused reductions of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor density (fmol/mg) in the basal forebrain (sham:

10797 ± 1339, TBI: 8791 ± 1031), while nicotinic acetylcholine receptor remained stable. Significant increases in vAChT density (fmol/mg) were observed in the basal forebrain (sham: 2347 ± 171, TBI: 2884 ± 544), putamen (sham: AZD6244 solubility dmso 2276 ± 181, TBI: 2961 ± 386), cortex (sham: 1928 ± 262, TBI: 2377 ± 294), thalamic areas (sham: 2133 ± 272, TBI: 2659 ± 413), hippocampus (sham: 2712 ± 145, TBI: 3391 ± 501) and hypothalamus (sham: 2659 ± 139,

TBI: 3084 ± 304). Conclusions: Cholinergic markers are altered after mild-to-moderate TBI in the immature brain. Whereas the ACh receptors are stable in almost any brain region after TBI, vAChT expression increases after trauma at the employed severity of this specific trauma model. “
“In adult mammals, CNS damage does not repair well spontaneously. The Nogo receptor (NgR) signaling pathway prevents axonal regrowth and promotes neuronal apoptosis. This pathway, and pathways like it, may be part of the reason why nerves do not regrow. A number of preclinical experiments inhibiting portions of the NgR pathway have yielded Forskolin solubility dmso limited induction of nerve repair. Here, we developed a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down NgR expression. With the use of rat Ergoloid hippocampal slices in tissue culture, we induced neuronal damage similar to that of ischemia-reperfusion injury by exposing the cultured tissues to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We then assayed the effect of NgR knockdown in this model system. Adenovirally delivered NgR shRNA decreased NgR mRNA and protein expression. Thirty minutes

of oxygen-glucose deprivation resulted in widespread tissue damage, including apoptosis and loss of neurite extension, 72 h after termination of oxygen-glucose deprivation. The NgR shRNA knockdown reduced, but did not eliminate, the effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Thus, NgR shRNA shows promise as a potential tool for the treatment of nerve damage. “
“Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been reported to improve the status of expanded disability status scale (EDSS) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and reduce the annual relapse rate, some studies did not find its beneficial effects. In the present study, using an animal model for MS, we found that prophylactic, but not therapeutic, treatment successfully suppressed the disease development. During the search for factors involved in the disease suppression by IVIG, we obtained evidence suggesting that IVIG exerts its function, at least in part, by suppressing activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9.

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