Smallest features of approximately 10 nm are realized Figure  1d

Smallest features of approximately 10 nm are realized. Figure  1d shows the cross sections of pagoda nanopillars with high aspect ratios (100-nm average diameter and 270-nm height). Table 1 Parameters summary for the IBM process in this work Parameter Value Unit Voltage 300 V Current 200 mA Suppressor 150 V Discharge 60 p53 activator V Magnet current 485 mA Flow rate

30 sccm Figure 1 SEM images of nanopillars with different outlines and profiles. (a) Cone-shaped particles. (b) Normal nanopillars. (c) Nanopillars with ultrasmall separations. (d) Cross-sectional view of pagoda-shaped nanopillars. Note that the materials used in (a) and (b) and in (c) and (d) are Au and Ag, respectively. The optical properties of the fabricated nanopillars under normal incidence were HKI-272 manufacturer measured using a commercial system (UV-VIS-NIR microspectrophotometer QDI 2010™, CRAIC Technologies, Inc., San Dimas, CA, USA). A × 36 objective lens with the numerical aperture of 0.5 was employed with a 75-W xenon lamp which provided a broadband spectrum. Using a beam splitter, the partial power of the incident light beam was focused onto the sample surface through the objective lens. The spectrum acquisition for all measurements was performed with a sampling aperture size of 7.1 × 7.1 μm2. Transmission and reflection were measured with respect to the light through a bare quartz substrate and an aluminum mirror, respectively. To characterize

the optical properties from oblique angles, an ellipsometry setup (Uvisel, Horiba Jobin Yvon, Kyoto, Japan) was employed with a broadband light source. Results and discussion Sorafenib in vitro Figure  2a demonstrates the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the top view of the fabricated Ag nanopillars with 400-nm periodicity. As can be seen, the fringe of the nanopillars presents a brighter color than the other areas due to different contrast which is caused by materials redeposition during milling. Figure  2b is the optical image of nanopillars supported by a quartz substrate with the size of 1.5 × 1.5 cm2. The corners show defects

caused by fabrication imperfections since the pattern Parvulin area is limited during holography and uneven distribution of resist during spin coating. The extinction spectra for nanopillar arrays with varying periodicities are plotted in Figure  2c. One can clearly observe tunable LSPRs and redshift of resonance peaks with increasing periodicities. Besides, relatively large full width at half maximum can be seen for resonance peaks after 900 nm. Figure 2 SEM image, optical image, and extinction spectra of Ag nanopillars. (a) Top-view SEM image of Ag nanopillars with 400-nm periodicity. (b) Optical image of nanopillars supported by a quartz substrate. (c) Measured extinction spectra for nanopillar arrays with varying periodicities. Figure  3a shows the atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the Au nanopillar array with 450-nm periodicity. As can be seen, nanopillars with uniform shapes are achieved.

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