LP performed the qPCR analysis, carried out clone library construction and was involved in the sequence analysis. JDS, GCP, NR, BNH, JB, JP, GD and LP conceived
of the study, participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Inorganic polyphosphates LGK-974 in vitro and the exopolyphosphatases/pyrophosphatases involved in their hydrolysis play an important role in the phosphate and energy metabolism of all living organisms [1, 2]. The polyphosphates, linear polymers ranging from two to hundreds of phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, are mostly concentrated in specialized organelles, the volutin granules or acidocalcisomes
[1, 3, 4]. They serve as osmotically inert phosphate and energy stores that also contain high concentrations PXD101 molecular weight of divalent cations and basic amino acids. Hydrolysis by polyphosphatases and pyrophosphatases provides phosphate in periods of phosphate limitation  or to control osmotic stress [3, 5]. Besides these roles that require massive amounts of polyphosphates, both molecular species, polyphosphates and selleckchem pyrophosphate, may also exert more subtle cytosolic functions, such as e.g. gating the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator . The polyphosphatases belong to the large superfamily Methane monooxygenase of the DHH phosphoesterases . This superfamily is divided into two subfamilies that share four N terminal signature motifs. They differ in their C-terminal moieties where subfamily 2 carries two additional
conserved motifs. Subfamily 1 includes the bacterial RecJ nucleases, while subfamily 2 members fall into three functional groups, the pyrophosphatases, the exopolyphosphatases and the closely related “”prune-type”" exopolyphosphatases. The exopolyphosphatase/pyrophosphatase groups and the prune group can be readily distinguished since members of the former group carry the sequences DHN and DHH in their motifs II and III, respectively, while all prunes carry the sequences DHH and DHR at the respective positions . Within the prune group, vertebrate prunes are distinguished from their non-vertebrate homologues by the acquisition of a C-terminal extension of about 80 amino acids . This region contains a proline-rich and a helical domain which are essential for the physical interaction of human prune with nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (nm23-H1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3b . Human prune is a short-chain selective exopolyphosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes tri- and tetrapolyphosphates, as well as nucleoside 5′-tetraphosphates . The kinetoplastids, a group of unicellular eukaryotes that comprises many important pathogens, contain prominent polyphosphate storage organelles, the acidocalcisomes.