Here we challenge this assumption by predicting that under high competition the cathodal stimulation might act as a noise filter, leading to an improved performance. We presented auditory targets with different emotional valence using a dichotic listening paradigm. We found that cathodal, but not anodal stimulation of the right IFG generated better prosody comprehension. Cathodal stimulation in competitive situations, such as
the dichotic listening paradigm, can act like a noise filter, and may in fact enhance cognitive performance. selleckchem This study contributes to understanding the way the IFG is engaged with prosody functions, and explains the cathodal effects of tDCS. This might lead to the development of more efficient brain stimulation protocols. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although accumulating evidence suggests that cerebellar abnormalities may be linked to the symptoms and course of schizophrenia, few studies have related structural and functional indices of cerebellar integrity. The present study examined the relationship between the volume of specific subregions of the cerebellum and cerebellar function, as measured by eyeblink conditioning (EBC). Nine individuals with schizophrenia and six healthy comparison
participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and a delay EBC procedure. Volumetric measurements were taken for the whole brain, whole cerebellum, cerebellar anterior U0126 nmr lobules I-V and posterior lobules VI-VII. The schizophrenia group had smaller cerebellar anterior lobes and exhibited impaired EBC relative to the comparison group. In the comparison group, larger anterior volume correlated with earlier conditioned response onset latencies and increased amplitudes of the unconditioned blink response during paired trials (i.e., when the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli co-occurred). The findings that smaller anterior cerebellar volumes and EBC impairments were associated with schizophrenia are consistent with non-human studies showing that anterior cerebellar
abnormalities are associated with deficits in delay EBC. The lack of a significant correlation between indices of EBC and cerebellar volume within the schizophrenia group for suggests an aberrant relationship between cerebellar structure and function. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Axon-guidance-pathway molecules are involved in connectivity and repair throughout life (beyond guiding brain wiring during fetal development). One study found that variations (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) in axon-guidance-pathway genes were predictive of three Parkinson’s disease (PD) outcomes (susceptibility, survival free of PD and age at onset of PD) in genome-wide association (GWA) datasets.