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he picked a common Berzosertib in vivo mathematical problem normally referred to as the ‘traveling sales man problem’ and was able to solve it using strands of DNA [48]. In 1996, a new technology called the ‘sticker DNA’ model was introduced by Roweis and colleagues. This model applies to random access memory and requires no enzymes or strand extension. This method, thus, has the capability of becoming the universal method for DNA computation. A controlled robotic work station helped not only in implementing the sticker model but also in reducing error rates [49]. Since then, many technologies which make use of DNA to resolve basic mathematical equations and pure computational problems have been developed. Mathematical and biological problems Inspired by Adelman’s experiment, researchers have been able to solve a diverse group of mathematical problems using DNA molecules. In 2011, Qian and Winfree were able to calculate square roots using ‘seesaw’ logic gates. The idea behind these gates is that a single stretch of DNA can pair up with various molecules, thus allowing competition for binding sites. Once a molecule is attached, it can be replaced instantly to allow other molecules 10058-F4 cell line to fasten themselves to the resident sequence, which itself can be

displaced again. This system allows ‘gates’ to be loaded with several input molecules and generates logical output molecules as a result. The various DNA strands can come to represent numbers, of which output can yield the square root result as answers [50]. In another attempt to mimic smart biological computations, Urease the Qian group has developed an artificial neural network. This model employs the use of four neurons. A neuron in its natural environment is susceptible to many incoming inputs, and it ‘reacts’ or ‘fires’ when it reaches a certain PF-6463922 mouse threshold. Based on their previous development of logic gates, Qian and his colleagues were able to construct Boolean logical circuits and other circuits which could store memories.

The DNA logic circuits were not only able to recall memory using incomplete information but also to determine when conflicting answers were obtained [51]. In other instances, scientists have also used sticker-based DNA to solve the independent set problem [52]. Unlike the earlier sticker DNA system, this model had a random access memory and, thus, required no extension of its strands and enzymes [49]. Inspired by Roweis and Adelman’s methods, Taghipour and colleagues [52] set out to unravel the independent set problem through the use of DNA computing. In the beginning, a solution space was created using memory complexes made up of DNA. Then, by the application of a sticker-based parallel algorithm, the independent set problem was solved in polynomial time. Other biological molecules besides DNA have also been used for computation.