Expired gas composition and temperature, HR, ambient
temperature and humidity during whole TT were monitored using Cortex MetaMax® 3B System and Polar 725 heart rate monitor. Carbohydrate (CHO) and fat utilization was calculated based on the equation built in the software by selecting an assumed 15% total energy expenditure derived from protein. INCB018424 in vitro The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) using the 6-20 Borg scale was surveyed at 20-min intervals throughout the test. The pre- and post-testing body mass (BM) with removal of their racing suit was checked using an electronic BM scale. Urine sample was collected during 10-min relax time of the performance test for volume determination. To ensure subjects were enthusiastic about the test and performed at their highest level, they were informed at the beginning of the test that a prize would be awarded to the winner cycling the longest distance
during TT. Blood samples collection and biochemical measurements Venous blood was collected from anticubital arm vein into vacutainer tubes before the performance tests. Heparin plasma and serum were obtained after centrifugation at 3000 × g for 10 min. Samples were stored at -80°C until analyses. Finger blood was obtained via puncture for glucose determination at 0, 60, 125 and 155 min during the test. Free fatty acid (FFA), pyruvic acid (PA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in plasma were determined using commercial kits Atezolizumab supplier (Randox Laboratories Ltd, Crumlin, UK), and an auto-biochemical Dabrafenib analyzer (Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan). Plasma VE, malondialdehyde (MDA) and arginine levels, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and creatine kinase (CK) activities, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured using spectrophotometric kits (Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China). Serum insulin (Ins) and
cortisol (Cor) concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay kit (Jiuding Diagnostic, Tianjin, China). Blood glucose (BG) was determined using handheld blood glucose analyzer (One Touch, LifeScan, Inc. Milpitas, CA). Diet and dietary record All subjects lived in a winter training camp and dined in the same canteen throughout the study, and were advised by a registered dietician to follow a diet with 60% total calories from CHO, 15% from protein, and 25% from fat for 2 days before each performance test. Generally subjects had a typical Chinese breakfast consisting of one chicken egg, two servings of steamed breads or noodles, deep-fried dough sticks, rice congee, bean milk, some meat, some vegetables and appetizers, and lunch and dinner consisting of meat, steamed rice, steamed breads, noodles, soup, milk, fruit and vegetables, etc. To assess dietary intake throughout the study, a 2-day food record was conducted at week 2, 4, 8, and 10.