Design: Prognostic study of an inception cohort Setting:

\n\nDesign: Prognostic study of an inception cohort.\n\nSetting: Academic research.\n\nPatients: Between July 1, 1999, and July 31, 2002, all patients who had primary cutaneous or mucosal melanomas that have a Breslow depth of 1.5 mm or greater, ulceration, or Clark level IV or V, or had SLN biopsies.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: By the use of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of the following was analyzed in SLNs: 2 melanocytic differentiation antigens (tyrosinase [P17646] and melanoma antigen recognized by T cells [MART-1; Q16655]) and

APR-246 genes involved in angiogenesis (VEGF [NM_001025366] and VEGFR2 [AF035121]), lymphangiogenesis (VEGFC [NM_005429], VEGFR3 [X68203], LYVE1 [NM_016164], and PROX1 [002763]), and invasion (uPA [NM_002658], PAI1 [NM_00602], and EMMPRIN [L10240]).

Outcome measures were the association of these melanocytic differentiation antigens and angiogenesis biomarkers with clinicopathologic characteristics of patients, and an evaluation of the prognostic value for relapse-free survival and overall survival.\n\nResults: Ninety-one patients were included, with a median follow-up period of 41 months. Micrometastases were present in 15% (14 of 91) of patients. Tyrosinase (P < .001), MART-1 (P < .001), vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF(121)) (P learn more = .007), and PAI1 (P = .02) expression was significantly associated with micrometastasis. In univariate analysis, histologic findings and tyrosinase and MART-1 expression were significantly associated with relapse-free

survival. Tyrosinase and MART-1 expression was associated with overall survival. A multiple Cox proportional hazards regression model identified negative histologic findings and tyrosinase expression that exceeded 27 copies/copy of TATA box-binding protein (third quartile) as significantly associated with an increased risk of relapse or death.\n\nConclusions: Quantitative assessment of melanocytic differentiation antigens in SLNs, which has prognostic value, C188-9 is more specific than qualitative assessment. Prognosis may be more effectively predicted by the combination of quantitative assessment of melanocytic differentiation antigens in SLNs with histologic assessment. A significant association was found between the presence of micrometastases and the expression of angiogenesis biomarkers.”
“Study Design: A biomechanical cadaveric study of lumbar spine segments.\n\nObjective: To compare the immediate stability provided by parallel-shaped and anatomically shaped carbon fiber interbody fusion I/F cages in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) constructs with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation.\n\nSummary of Background Data: Few biomechanical data are available on the anatomically shaped cages in PLIF and TLIF constructs.

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