(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved “

(C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Whether visual subliminal processing involves semantic processing is still being debated. To examine this, we combined a passive electroencephalogram (EEG) study with an application of transcranial

direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the masked-face priming paradigm, we presented a subliminal prime preceding the target stimulus. Participants were asked to determine whether the target face was a famous face, indicated by a button press. The prime and target pair were either the same person’s face selleck chemicals llc (congruent) or different person’s faces (incongruent), and were always both famous or both non-famous faces. Experiments were performed over 2 days: 1 day for a real tDCS session and another for a sham session as a control condition. In the sham session, a priming effect, reflected in the difference in amplitude of the late positive component (250-500

ms to target onset), was observed only in the famous prime condition. According to a previous study, this effect might indicate a subliminal semantic process [10]. Alternatively, a priming effect toward famous primes disappeared after tDCS stimulation. Our results suggested that a subliminal process might not be limited to processes in the occipital and temporal SC75741 in vitro areas, but may proceed to the semantic level processed in prefrontal cortex. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the use of temporary epicardial pacing wires to diagnose and treat early postoperative arrhythmias in pediatric cardiac surgical patients and (2) to determine the predictive factors for the need of pacing wires for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Methods: We collected preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data in a prospective, observational format from patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery between August 2010 and January 2011 at a single academic children’s www.selleck.cn/products/H-89-dihydrochloride.html hospital.


A total of 157 patients met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Of these 157 patients, pacing wires were placed in 127 (81%). Pacing wires were used in 25 patients (19.6%) for diagnostic purposes, 26 patients (20.4%) for therapeutic purposes, 15 patients (11.8%) for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and 36 patients (28.3%) for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Need for cardioversion in the operating room, presence of 2 or more intracardiac catheters, severely reduced ventricular ejection fraction, and elevated serumlactate level at the time of operating room discharge were found to be independent predictors for the use of pacing wires. The only complication noted in the cohort was a skin infection at a pacing wire insertion site in 1 patient. A permanent pacemaker was required in 8 (6.2%) of all patients with temporary pacing wires.

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