As expected, the amount of phenol produced per gram biomass (the

As expected, the amount of phenol produced per gram biomass (the specific productivity, mmol g(-1) L(-1)) remains constant in time for all fermentations. The use of pertraction for in situ phenol removal is compared to in situ second phase extraction, in situ solvent impregnated resins and in-stream pertraction. Although the system shows promising results, further modifications such as using a solvent with a higher partition coefficient can improve the overall performance. (c)

2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been implicated in regulating various aspects of plant development, including somatic cytokinesis. The evolution of expanded plant MAPK gene families has enabled the diversification of potential NU7441 supplier MAPK cascades, but functionally overlapping components

are also well documented. Here we report that Arabidopsis MPK4, an MAPK that was previously described as a regulator of disease resistance, can interact with and be phosphorylated by the cytokinesis-related MAP kinase kinase, AtMKK6. In mpk4 mutant plants, anthers can develop normal microspore mother cells (MMCs) and peripheral supporting tissues, but the MMCs fail to form a normal intersporal callose wall after male meiosis, and thus cannot complete meiotic cytokinesis. Nevertheless, the multinucleate mpk4 microspores subsequently proceed through mitotic cytokinesis, resulting in enlarged mature pollen grains that possess increased sets of the tricellular structure. This pollen development phenotype is reminiscent PI3K inhibitor of those observed in both atnack2/tes/stud and anq1/mkk6 mutants, and protein-protein interaction analysis

defines a putative signalling module linking AtNACK2/TES/STUD, AtANP3, AtMKK6 and AtMPK4 together as a cascade that facilitates male-specific meiotic cytokinesis in Arabidopsis.”
“Since its first identification in the early 1960s, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as a major human pathogen. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of MRSA in Alexandria Main University Hospital and to settle on a simple, rapid, accurate and cost-effective phenotypic test for the detection NCT-501 ic50 of MRSA from clinical specimens. One hundred S. aureus isolates, including 71 MRSA isolates, as confirmed by PCR for the presence or absence of the mecA gene as the gold standard, were isolated from patients from different departments at Alexandria Main University Hospital over a six month-period. They were tested for methicillin resistance by comparing five phenotypic tests (Mannitol salt agar-cefoxitin [MSA-FOX], oxacillin disc diffusion, cefoxitin disc diffusion, oxacillin MIC by broth microdilution and latex agglutination for PBP2a) to the gold standard genotypic test (detection of mecA gene by PCR).

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