An IAA-overproducing strain of the mycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum had a more pronounced impact on Pinus pinaster cortical cell elongation and radial diameter than the wild-type strain . It should be noted that in that study IAA production was determined under culture conditions in the presence LY2874455 molecular weight of high tryptophan concentrations and in-planta production of IAA by the mycorrhizal fungus was not verified. IAA-overproducing Fusarium strains were generated by expressing the bacterial iaaM and iaaH genes in two species pathogenic to Orobanche . The transgenic strains produced more IAA
in culture and demonstrated enhanced virulence on the host plants. Again, in-planta production of IAA was not determined. Most fungi produce IAA from the amino acid tryptophan Anti-infection inhibitor through the indole-3-pyruvic buy Quisinostat acid (IPY) pathway . Genes of the IPY pathway have been recently identified in the smut fungus Ustilago maydis . Two indole-3-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes (IAD1, IAD2) were identified and Δiad1Δiad2 mutant strains were produced. These mutants were blocked in the conversion of both indole-3-acetaldehyde and tryptamine to IAA.
Furthermore, deletion of two aromatic amino acid aminotransferases (TAM1 and TAM2, required for conversion of tryptophan to IPY) in the Δiad1Δiad2 mutant background resulted in a further decrease in IAA production. IAA levels were reduced in plants infected with the mutant strains compared to wild-type infected plants, but tumor formation was unaffected. Thus, although these results strongly suggest that U. maydis produces IAA within
the plant, they do not provide answers as to the possible role or effect of fungus-produced IAA on disease development. We previously showed that Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene (C. gloeosporioides) produces large quantities of IAA in axenic culture . Unlike in other fungi, the major IAA-biosynthesis pathway in C. gloeosporioides is the bacterial indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway. Although external addition of tryptophan Buspirone HCl was necessary for the production of IAA in axenic cultures, in-planta production of IAA by the fungus was also demonstrated . To gain insight into the possible roles of IAA, we developed a screen for auxin-induced genes in C. gloeosporioides. Here we report the identification and characterization of CgOPT1, a C. gloeosporioides IAA-responsive gene, which is involved in mediating fungal responses to IAA. Results Isolation and characterization of CgOPT1 In search of IAA-induced fungal genes, a suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH) library was prepared from mycelia grown in media with (+) or without (-) IAA.