Adult male Wistar rats were

subjected to 21 days of restr

Adult male Wistar rats were

subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by housing in either standard or enriched BMS202 cell line conditions (10 days, 6 h/day). Survival and differentiation of BrdU-labeled cells were evaluated 31 days post-BrdU administration. Stress decreased the survival and differentiation of progenitor cells, which was ameliorated by EE. Also the percentage of BrdU-ir cells that did not co-localize with NeuN or S100 beta was significantly greater in the stressed rats and was restored by EE. Stress increased immobility in FST and decreased sucrose preference in the SCT, and these behaviors were ameliorated by EE. Adult neurogenesis is thought to be linked to learning and memory and in mediating antidepressant effect. Taken together with our earlier report that EE restores stress-induced impairment in learning and cytogenesis, the Current results indicate that the reversal of adult neurogenesis could be one of the mechanisms involved in the amelioration of stress-induced deficits. (C) 2009 C188-9 ic50 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Clinical evidence links increased aortic collagen content and stiffness to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. However, the possibility that excess collagen contributes to AAA formation remains untested. We investigated the hypothesis that augmented

collagen promotes AAA formation, and employed apoE-null mice expressing collagenase-resistant mutant collagen (Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-)),

heterozygote (Col(R/+)/apoE(-/-)), or wild-type collagen (Col(+/+)/apoE(-/-)) infused with angiotensin II to induce AAA. As expected, the aortas of Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-) mice contained more PLK inhibitor interstitial collagen than those from the other groups. Angiotensin II treatment elicited more AAA formation in Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-) mice than Col(R/+)/apoE(-/-) or Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-) mice. Aortic circumferences correlated positively with collagen content, determined by picrosirius red and Masson trichrome staining. Mechanical testing of aortas of Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-) mice showed increased stiffness and susceptibility to mechanical failure compared to those of Col(+/+)/apoE(-/-) mice. Optical analysis further indicated altered collagen fiber orientation in the adventitia of Col(R/R)/apoE(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that collagen content regulates aortic biomechanical properties and influences AAA formation.”
“Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a member of the lipocalin family of transporter proteins binds a number of small lipophilic molecules including arachidonic acid and cholesterol. Recent studies showed a protective function of mammalian apoD as well as its insect and plant homologs against oxidative stress.

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