To maintain itself in its complex tick-mammalian infectious life

To maintain itself in its complex tick-mammalian infectious life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to two markedly different host milieus (ticks and mammals). This host adaptation is achieved, at least in part, by altering a number of its outer surface lipoproteins, which is perhaps best exemplified by the differential ARN-509 regulation of outer surface (lipo)protein A (OspA) and outer surface (lipo)protein C (OspC) [4–9]. OspA, serving as an attachment factor for the tick midgut protein TROSPA, is important for B. burgdorferi to colonize and survive

in tick midguts [10–12]. OspC, although its precise function remains unknown, is essential for B. burgdorferi to establish see more itself in the mammalian setting, particularly at the early stage of infection [13–15].

As such, in flat (unfed) nymphs, OspA, but not OspC, is abundantly expressed on the surface of spirochetes, whereas during early mammalian infection, OspC, but not OspA, is highly induced [4, 7–9]. There is now compelling evidence that the differential regulation of ospC and other outer membrane lipoproteins in B. burgdorferi is mediated by a central regulatory cascade known as the RpoN-RpoS regulatory pathway [16–21]. H 89 clinical trial In the RpoN-RpoS pathway, one alternative sigma factor (sigmaN, σN, σ54, RpoN) controls the expression of another alternative sigma factor (sigmaS, σs, σ38, RpoS) which, in turn, governs the expression of key membrane lipoproteins associated with borrelial virulence. Like other bacterial σ54-dependent systems, activation of B. burgdorferi rpoS requires a putative enhancer-binding protein (EBP), Rrp2, which has been postulated to be activated through phosphorylation [22–26]. However, unlike most other bacterial EBPs for σ54 systems, Rrp2 has been

reported Succinyl-CoA not to bind specifically to DNA region(s) in proximity to the σ54-dependent rpoS promoter in B. burgdorferi [23, 27]. Surprisingly, another activator, BosR, recently has been shown to be an additional molecule that also is essential for σ54-dependent rpoS transcription in B. burgdorferi [21, 28–31]; data thus far suggest that BosR binds to one or more sites near the rpoS promoter through a novel DNA binding mechanism [30]. Finally, rpoS expression also is modulated by the small RNA DsrA (and its potential chaperone Hfq) [32, 33], CsrA (the putative carbon storage regulator A) [34, 35], and other unknown mammalian host factors [17, 21, 36–38]. Under in vitro culture parameters of lower temperature (23°C) and a Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium pH of about 7.4, conditions that ostensibly mimic those of the unfed tick midgut, the expression of rpoS in B. burgdorferi is repressed. Changes in these environmental conditions emanating from the tick’s taking of a blood meal, such as elevated temperature (37°C), reduced pH (pH 6.

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