This method made it possible to form a variety of nanostructures based on differences in sequence, rather than being dependent on the influence of changes in the environment surrounding the DNA (pH, salt, and temperature) [11, 12]. DNA-modifying enzymes can also be used to generate and manipulate DNA nanostructures. Although studies in this area have so far been limited, many design selleck chemicals llc tools have been developed for the application
of these enzymes to alter DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Most of these enzymes work like small nanofactories and are, hence, highly specific in their actions, based on various biological processes . The sequence specificity and ease of manipulation of DNA nanoarchitectural structures allow them to carry or organize various biological molecules such as peptides, proteins, and viral capsids ,
as well as MEK162 nmr complex structures such as carbon nanotubules and other nanoparticles. Such self-assembling DNA nanostructures have increased the activity of enzyme cascades and shifted surface plasmon resonance wavelengths based on their custom-controlled arrangement [15–24]. Nanoconstruction can be used to form structures of various shapes and sizes. Based on the Rothemund model of DNA origami , scientists were able to fold long strands of DNA into various interesting two-dimensional shapes depicted in PS 341 Figure 2. This approach has been very successful so far in producing not only two- but also three-dimensional structures [27–30]. On other occasions, scientists have also employed the use of filamentous viral particles to organize various nanomaterials
for short periods of time to form diverse and complex structures which may function Montelukast Sodium as wires, rings, etc. which may have optical, electronic, and biotechnological applications [31, 32]. Figure 2 Complex shapes designed using a DNA molecular canvas. AFM images of 100 distinct shapes, including the 26 capital letters of the Latin alphabet, 10 Arabic numerals, 23 punctuation marks, other standard keyboard symbols, 10 emoticons, 9 astrological symbols, 6 Chinese characters, and various miscellaneous symbols . Despite these advances in DNA nanotechnology, it remains in the development phase. Generally, only about 30% of the assembled DNA molecules are similar to the original design . This presents a great challenge for the development of techniques to fabricate modern DNA nanostructures, especially in the DNA computational area. Researchers compare this process with the complicated and eventually successful development of electronics, computers, and automobiles. Besides errors in the ‘designed’ genetic sequences, another shortcoming is that prolonged thermal cycling for up to 24 h is required to produce a useful nanodevice. In case of automobiles, it took over a decade to produce the first functional prototype. Hopefully, the development of potent nanomaterials will not take as long.