In the United States, analysis of strains from Texas, California,

In the United States, analysis of strains from Texas, California, and Colorado reported 25% containing fewer than six IS6110 copies [41]. The reports of the incidence of strains with low copy number insertions from the United States are closer to the incidence of Aurora Kinase inhibitor the Mexican strains isolated in our work. In this study, 48

MTb strains produced 21 spoligotyping patterns, while 9 M. bovis produced just 7 patterns. Quitugua et al [42] had reported the spoligotype 777776777760601 (ST137) in 63 patients from Texas, this pattern was identified in 2 strains in our study. Palbociclib ic50 Likewise, the octal 777776777760771 (ST119) which was identified in 89 patients who live on the border of Mexico (Tamaulipas) and United States (Texas), was identified in 3 strains in this study. Other octals found by Quitugua et al and also in our work, were 777777777760771 (ST53) and 777777607760771 (ST42), confirming that there are some strains of MTb circulating between Mexico and United States. The spoligotypes ST42, ST47, ST50 and ST53 identified in this study, have been found in others countries including Brazil, South Africa and Poland [43–45], suggesting that these strains might be circulating worldwide. Furthermore, the ST53 spoligotype has also been isolated from Egyptian

mummies [46]; this spoligotype is one of the most common patterns and, according to a hypothesis about the evolution of MTb strains by loss of DRs [47], close to the origin of development of mycobacterial diversity. The ST683 spoligotype found in M. bovis strains check details isolated in this study

has also been found in cattle from Juarez City and Chihuahua (Mexico) [48] and has been frequently isolated from cattle in Australia, Argentina, England, France and Ireland [49–53]. The pattern of transmission of M. bovis to HIV-infected patients is still under study; however, the identification of the same spoligotype patterns in both cattle and HIV-infected patients indicates ADP ribosylation factor that, as is generally accepted, ingestion of contaminated milk or dairy products is the most probable origin of infection [31]. This study is the first in Mexico where genetic diversity of mycobacterial strains has been evaluated using MIRU-VNTR. The 48 MTb strains investigated in this report produced 40 distinct patterns by MIRU-VNTR while 9 M. bovis strains produced 7. Analysis of these results showed that most of these patterns were unique, consistent with other studies conducted in Singapore and Belgium, where there was wide variability in MTb strains [54, 55]. As expected, most of clusters based on spoligotyping or low IS6110 copy number fingerprinting could be distinguished by MIRU-VNTR. Additionally, in strains isolated from HIV-infected patients, 4 MIRU (4, 20, 23 and 31) were showed to have a different pattern compared with those occurring in the population without HIV; MIRU 4 and 31 in strains isolated from HIV-infected patients presented with low polymorphism, while those identified from individuals without HIV have a high polymorphism.

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