29 Spillane M, Schoch R, Cooke R, Harvey T, Greenwood


29. Spillane M, Schoch R, Cooke R, Harvey T, Greenwood

M, Kreider R, Willoughby DS: The effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation combined with heavy resistance training on body composition, muscle performance, and serum and muscle creatine levels. Int J Sport Nutr 2009,6(6):1–14. 30. Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K, Triplett-Mcbride NT, Fry AC, Koziris LP, Ratamess NA, Bauer JE, Volek JS, McConnell T, Newton RU, Gordon SE, Cummings D, Hauth J, Pullo F, Lynch JM, Fleck SJ, Mazzetti SA, Knuttgen HG: Physiological changes with periodized INK1197 concentration resistance training in women tennis players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003,35(1):157–168.PubMedCrossRef 31. Schilling BK: Creatine supplementation and health variables: a retrospective study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001,33(2):183–188.PubMed 32. Poortmans JR, Kumps A, Duez P, Fofonka A, Carpentier A, Francaux M: Effect of oral creatine supplementation A-1155463 chemical structure on urinary methylamine, formaldehyde, and formate. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005,37(10):1717–1720.PubMedCrossRef 33. Poortmans JR, Francaux M: Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999,31(8):1108–1110.PubMedCrossRef 34. Arnold

GN: Muscle glycogen supercompensation is enhanced by prior creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001,33(7):1096–1100. 35. Guezennec CY, Abdelmalki A, Serrurier B, Merino D, Bigard X, Berthelot M, Pierard C, Peres M: Effects of prolonged exercise on brain ammonia and amino acids. Int J Sports Med 1998, 19:323–327.PubMedCrossRef 36. Souza Junior TP, Pereira B: Creatina: auxílio ergogênico com potencial antioxidante? Rev Nutr 2008,21(3):349–353.CrossRef Competing interests All authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MC and SP have idealized the study and Glutathione peroxidase are responsible for the final form of the manuscript; SPTD, DMC, MC and LMT conducted the exercise training, supplement

administration, sample collection and the draft of the manuscript; JLFV, SP, FV, and EDA performed laboratory testing, statistical analysis, and contributed to the draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background During strenuous exercise performed in hot and/or humid conditions, the effects of a high metabolic heat production combined with insufficient heat dissipation lead to the development of hyperthermia [1, 2]. These high body temperatures (i.e., >39°C) reduce exercise performance [3, 4], as evidenced by the inability to sustain a constant exercise intensity [5, 6] or through alterations in self-selected pace [2, 7]. Fortunately, there are established strategies that can be applied prior to an event that can lessen the impact of heat gain and facilitate heat loss from the body. For instance, precooling through the application or ingestion/inhalation of cold air, water and ice have been demonstrated to be effective in lowering deep body temperatures and enhancing heat storage capacity (for review, see [8–10]).

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