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administration, sample collection and the draft of the manuscript; JLFV, SP, FV, and EDA performed laboratory testing, statistical analysis, and contributed to the draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background During strenuous exercise performed in hot and/or humid conditions, the effects of a high metabolic heat production combined with insufficient heat dissipation lead to the development of hyperthermia [1, 2]. These high body temperatures (i.e., >39°C) reduce exercise performance [3, 4], as evidenced by the inability to sustain a constant exercise intensity [5, 6] or through alterations in self-selected pace [2, 7]. Fortunately, there are established strategies that can be applied prior to an event that can lessen the impact of heat gain and facilitate heat loss from the body. For instance, precooling through the application or ingestion/inhalation of cold air, water and ice have been demonstrated to be effective in lowering deep body temperatures and enhancing heat storage capacity (for review, see [8–10]).