, 2009; Semrau et al., 2010). The latter issue may play a role in the ability of some methanotrophs to utilize multicarbon compounds, with alphaproteobacterial and verrucomicrobial methanotrophs utilizing the serine pathway for carbon assimilation, while Gammaproteobacteria methanotrophs utilize the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) Anti-cancer Compound Library datasheet pathway (as discussed in more detail below). As comprehensively reported in several recent reviews (Trotsenko & Murrell, 2008; Op den Camp et al., 2009; Semrau et al., 2010), methanotrophs were initially characterized over 100 years ago, and subsequent studies in the 1950s
and 1960s indicated that these strains could only utilize methane or methanol for growth (Dworkin & Foster, 1956; Leadbetter & Foster, 1958; Brown et al., 1964; Foster & Davis, 1966). In 1970, however, a first indication that methanotrophs could utilize multicarbon compounds to accentuate growth was reported (Whittenbury et al., 1970). In this classic manuscript
describing the isolation and characterization of methanotrophs from sites around the world, a wide variety of methanotrophs were reported to show enhanced growth on methane when malate, acetate, or succinate was also present in the culture medium. Such findings suggested that facultative methanotrophs may exist, i.e., strains that could utilize multicarbon compounds as well as methane as a sole growth substrate. Carfilzomib Shortly thereafter, the first facultative methanotrophic isolates from freshwater lake sediments and water were reported. These could utilize a wide range of multicarbon compounds as growth substrates, including many organic acids (malate, succinate, fumarate, and acetate) and sugars (glucose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, and ribose) (Patt et al., 1974). One strain, later described as Methylobacterium organophilum (belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria), was further characterized, and had the complete tricarboxylic
acid (TCA) cycle (Patt et al., 1976). This strain, however, lost the ability to oxidize methane when grown repeatedly on glucose, and other workers subsequently did not succeed in growing the strain Grape seed extract on methane (Green & Bousfield, 1983; Urakami et al., 1993). Collectively, these findings suggested that these isolates were not facultative methanotrophs as originally surmised. Other early studies reported the isolation of facultative methanotrophs from a rice paddy in South China, as well as from soils collected from an oil refinery in the Northeastern United States (Patel et al., 1978; Zhao & Hanson, 1984a, b). These strains were found to have the complete TCA cycle and two of them, strains R6 and 761H, were able to grow solely on glucose, but not with other sugars such as fructose, galactose, or sucrose. In addition, a variant of strain 761H, strain 761M, could not grow on glucose as the sole carbon source, but glucose, as well as acetate and malate, were reported to enhance its growth on methane.