So far, however, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PREs) was t

So far, however, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PREs) was the most common experimental parameter used for the analysis of IDPs’ tertiary structures in solution. The presence of the paramagnetic spin label (e.g. nitroxide moiety, TEMPO or MTSL) leads to an enhancement

in the transverse relaxation rates R2 depending on the inverse sixth power of the distance (1/r6) between the unpaired electron and the observed nucleus. For the quantitative analysis of PRE data two approaches have been proposed. In the first approach PRE data are converted into distances using well-established methodology [28] that can subsequently be used in, for example, MD simulations to calculate conformational ensembles [29]. A second approach involves a more sophisticated Venetoclax purchase extended model-free model for the time–dependency of PRE effects [25]. Several applications to IDPs have been reported demonstrating the validity of the approach [30], [31], [32] and [33]. Despite the popularity and the robustness of the PRE approach applications to IDPs are still far from trivial. Firstly, the identification of suitable spin label attachment sites without prior knowledge of the compact

structure is not a trivial task as the introduction of the spacious spin label at positions that are relevant for the compact tertiary structure will inevitably perturb the structures. In the worst case, as observed for globular proteins, single point mutations CHIR99021 can have detrimental effects on the structural stability of proteins. Thus, additional, PJ34 HCl entirely primary sequence-based analysis tools are

needed for the reliable definition of attachment sites. Secondly, it has been shown that the pronounced distance dependence of PREs can lead to significant bias in the derived ensemble, although this can be partly improved by invoking independent, complementary experimental data (e.g. SAXS) [30]. Recent studies provided some insight into the molecular details of the conformational ensembles populated by IDPs in solution and call for a reassessment of the binary description scheme proposed for proteins lacking a stable tertiary structure [34]. Although proteins differ in terms of tertiary structure stability both ordered and disordered proteins share similar protein folding funnels encoded by the primary sequence leading to distinct residue–residue interaction patterns. The fundamental differences between ordered and disordered proteins are thus merely the heights of energy barriers and the different distributions of thermally accessible conformational substates. As globular proteins can partly populate different unfolded states, conversely in structural ensembles of disordered proteins a significant number of compact structures can also exist stabilized by enthalpically favored long-range interaction patterns similar to stable protein folds.

, 2012, Bedny et al , 2008, Laiacona and Caramazza, 2004 and Shap

, 2012, Bedny et al., 2008, Laiacona and Caramazza, 2004 and Shapiro and Caramazza, 2003). This position implies that the same differences are present for concrete and BIBF-1120 abstract members of these lexical categories. In

contrast, a semantic approach postulates a difference in brain activation topographies only for concrete nouns and verbs semantically related to objects and actions respectively, but not for abstract nouns and verbs, which lack such clear differences in semantic links with action and perception information. The grounded semantics position views semantic representations as circuits tying together symbolic word form information with action and perception schemas (Barsalou, 1999 and Lakoff, 1987). In this perspective, neuronal circuits in motor systems (the neural substrate of action schemas) contribute to semantic knowledge about action-related verbs, whereas meaning knowledge related to object words, typically concrete nouns, is underpinned by neuronal assemblies reaching

into inferior-temporal cortex of the ventral-visual “what” stream of object processing (Barsalou, 2008, Gallese and Lakoff, 2005, Martin, 2007, Pulvermüller, 1999 and Pulvermüller ABT 199 and Fadiga, 2010). Cortical areas associated with movement or object perception, in middle temporal and inferior temporal/fusiform gyrus respectively, may house additional perceptual schemas related to actions and objects. Abstract words which

belong to the noun and verb categories, but which cannot be differentiated from each other based on action- or perception-related semantic features, are hypothesised to evoke similar topographical patterns of brain activation. Previous studies of abstract language processing have implicated a wide range of brain regions, including Pregnenolone multimodal dorsolateral prefrontal (Binder et al., 2005, Boulenger et al., 2009 and Moseley et al., 2012), anterior temporal (Patterson, Nestor, & Rogers 2007) and superior parietal cortex (Binder et al. 2005). As a number of studies on abstract word processing have previously found activation in premotor and prefrontal cortex (Moseley et al., 2012, Pexman et al., 2007 and Pulvermüller and Hauk, 2006), it seems to be reasonable to predict such activation for our present abstract items, without any further prediction about differences between abstract nouns and verbs. With tight matching of stimuli and the use of event-related functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we here address the debate around the question as to whether brain activation topographies elicited by words are driven by lexical or semantic factors, or by both.

8–56 54%) The presence of two anthropometric measurements exceed

8–56.54%). The presence of two anthropometric measurements exceeding average values was found respectively in 24 (38.1%; 95% CI: 27.12–50.44%), 50 (32.47%; 95% CI: 25.58–40.21%) and 27 (20.3%; 95% CI: 14.34–27.93%) children (p = 0.031). Excessive height/body length was significantly associated with higher levels of energy (R = 0.17; p < 0.05), protein (R = 0.14; p < 0.05), carbohydrates (R = 0.15; p < 0.05) and fat (R = 0.13; p < 0.05) consumption. Overweight and a combination of several extreme anthropometric measurements

were significantly correlated with a higher diet energy (R = 0.12 and R = 0.14 respectively; p < 0.05) and carbohydrates content (R = 0.13 and R = 0.13 respectively; p < 0.05). However, feeding habits did not affect the occurrence of any shortage of physical development of children involved into the study. The

prevalence check details of iron deficiency anemia was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.07–10.76%), the prevalence of latent iron deficiency defined as ferritin in the blood content of less than 20 ng/ml – 47.12% (95% CI: 37.8–56.64%), and the frequency of inadequate iron intake – 68.29% (95% CI: 63.23–72.94%). Children who eat more special formula food or infant food had reliably lower risk of latent iron deficiency formation (R = −0.22; p < 0.05) whereas www.selleckchem.com/products/INCB18424.html longer breastfeeding was significantly associated with such a risk (R = 0.2; p < 0.05). Additional non-parametric analysis revealed that the negative correlation between the formula consumption and latent iron deficiency development could be even more prominent if measured with a correlation coefficient γ (γ = −0.34; p < 0.05) which is preferable to Spearman R or Kendall Tau when the data contain many tied observations. Lager weekly baby cereal amount in

the child’s diet did not correlate with the risk of latent iron deficiency, Casein kinase 1 but was significantly associated with the development of iron deficiency anemia (γ = −0.52; p < 0.05). Implementation of modern principles of nutrition of young children first of all means to ensure adequate rates of “healthy growth”, not only to avoid wasting and stunting because of nutritional deficiency, but also to prevent excessive weight gain due to unbalanced nutrition. Only under such conditions it is possible to avoid undesirable long-term effects of inadequate nutrition for the young child her future health and development [8]. Dietary habits which are formed at this age under the influence of parents’ example are of key importance to ensure a healthy diet in subsequent periods of life. The results of the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of young children typical diet in different countries have shown that it usually does not provide requirements for iron and vitamin D, but leads to excessive consumption of energy, protein and sodium [31] and [32]. Thus, the level of protein consumption in children aged 13–18 months exceeds the recommended one by 254% in France, 150% – in Italy, 186% – in Luxembourg [33].

All antibodies were used at the manufacturers’ recommended concen

All antibodies were used at the manufacturers’ recommended concentrations with matched isotype controls (from Serotec). Dead/dying cells were excluded from the analysis using DAPI (Sigma) and were normally less than 5%.

Data were analysed on an LSRII flow cytometer equipped with DIVA software (BD Biosciences). The phenotypic identification selleck chemicals llc of the ‘ex-vivo MSC’ using the CD45−/lowCD271+ phenotype was first described by our group using ICBMA [27], [28] and [35] and has since been independently validated by others [29], [36] and [37]. MSC enumeration was performed by staining the aspirated MNC fraction with CD45-FITC (Dako UK Ltd, Ely, UK), CD271-PE (Miltenyi Biotec) and 7-AAD, as previously described [28]. A minimum of 5 × 105 events were acquired and analysed using an LSRII flow cytometer to establish the percentage of CD45−/lowCD271+ cells. The frequency of CD45−/lowCD271+

per ml of sample was then calculated based on the following formula: CD45−/lowCD271+ cells/ml = % CD45−/lowCD271+ cells × MNCs/ml. Bone marrow MNCs were isolated using Lymphoprep and cells were then re-suspended at 1 × 107 cells/ml in FACs buffer. Antibodies were added at the manufacturers’ recommended concentrations and the cells were incubated for 20 min. Antibodies used were: CD45-PECy7, CD73-PE, CD34-PerCP, CD19-PE, CD33-FITC, CD61-FITC (BD Biosciences), CD90-PE, CD105-PE, CD31-FITC (Serotec) and CD271-APC (Miltenyi Biotec). The cells were washed and re-suspended LBH589 in FACs buffer containing 100 ng/ml DAPI before analysing on an LSRII flow cytometer. Dead cells were excluded from the analysis using DAPI (usually < 5%) before gating on the CD45−/low CD271+ cell population and assessing the expression of all other markers. Statistical analysis

and graphing were performed using GraphPad Prism version 4 for Windows (San Diego, California, USA). Gaussian distribution could not be assumed given the number of samples and differences between donor-matched ICBMA and LBFBM groups were tested using Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The differences in the MSC content between different patient groups were analysed using Mann–Whitney test. Significance was assumed when p < 0.05. A standard CFU-F assay was Thiamet G first performed to measure the MSC content of ICBM aspirates in three groups of orthopaedic patients and healthy controls (Table 1). Consistent with previously reported findings [10], high donor-to-donor variation was observed, potentially due to factors related to donor age [38] or a variable degree of dilution of ICBM sample with blood during the aspiration procedure [39]. No significant differences in CFU-F abundance in ICBMA were found between all three groups of orthopaedic patients and healthy controls (Table 1).

foliaceum and H akashiwo All residues that are critical for cat

foliaceum and H. akashiwo. All residues that are critical for catalytic activity of tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the S. robusta TyrC, similar to its heterokont homologues ( Fig. A.6A). Phylogenetic analyses ( Fig. A.6B) showed that heterokont (and dinoflagellate) TyrC forms a clade together with the Int recombinase encoded by the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oegodonium cardiacum ( Brouard et al., 2008). Another eukaryotic clade is formed by recombinases encoded by http://www.selleckchem.com/products/BAY-73-4506.html the mitochondrial genome of two other green algae, Prototheca wickerhamii ( Wolff et al., 1994) and Chaetosphaeridium globosum ( Turmel et al., 2002a). XerCD family tyrosine recombinases with a lower similarity

to TyrC are found in a large number of bacteria, mainly belonging to Firmicutes. A bacteria belonging to this phylum may be the source of the ancestral lateral gene Epigenetics inhibitor transfer of a tyrosine recombinase to an algal organellar genome. Expression analyses indicated that neither tyrC nor serC2 were expressed ( Fig. 6). Based on the presence of serine recombinases in the pCf1 and pCf2

plasmids (Hildebrand et al., 1992), SerC2 in the S. robusta chloroplast genome has likely also been associated with a plasmid, possibly a predecessor of pSr1. After integration of pSr1 in the chloroplast genome, the serC2 gene may have been lost from the plasmid. One Diflunisal possible role for TyrC could be to act in conversion of multimeric chloroplast molecules to monomers, as has been speculated for the H. akashiwo TyrC ( Cattolico et al., 2008). A XerCD family recombinase has been shown to mediate excision of a genomic island from the genome of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori;

conjugative transfer of such genomic islands is believed to contribute to the genetic diversity of H. pylori ( Fischer et al., 2010). Whether a similar role can be attributed to TyrC in the chloroplast genomes of S. robusta and other eukaryotes warrants further experimentation. The occurrence of gene-poor regions containing uncharacterised ORFs appears to coincide with the presence of a serine recombinase (Fistulifera sp.), a tyrosine recombinase (H. akashiwo), or both (S. robusta and K. foliaceum) in the chloroplast genome ( Table 2). The chloroplast genomes of P. tricornutum, T. pseudonana and the diatom endosymbiont of D. baltica do not encode any recombinase; none of the ORFs listed in Table 2 are found in these diatoms, and the mean intergenic spacer is smaller ( Table 1). Interestingly, an ORF encoding a partial serine recombinase (annotated as Escp117) is found in the chloroplast genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus ( Le Corguillé et al., 2009). The intergenic regions of the E. siliculosus chloroplast genome are longer than those of another brown alga, F. vesiculosus, where no traces of any recombinase were found.

4) Iron-PC resulted in no significant difference in the brain in

4). Iron-PC resulted in no significant difference in the brain in relation to manganese-PC,

zinc-PC, and copper-PC (Fig. 4). Compared to zinc-PC, copper-PC induced lower levels of lipid peroxidation in the brain at concentrations of 1, 50, and 100 μM (Fig. 4, p < 0.05). The manganese-PC (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8) significantly decreased the basal lipid peroxidation in liver and brain at all tested concentrations (1–100 μM). Moreover, the manganese-PC was able to decrease the lipid peroxidation to levels lower than those of the controls, both in liver, and brain tissues (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, respectively). The PC, copper-PC, Zinc-PC, and iron-PC did not show any antioxidant effects in basal-lipid peroxidation (data not shown).

The PC and MPCs did not show any Selleckchem Target Selective Inhibitor Library antioxidant effects in tests involving H2DCF-DA, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging and DPPH radical scavenging activities (data not shown). We evaluated the effect of manganese-PC and cooper-PC in the assay for degradation of deoxyribose, because these two compounds showed better results when tested in SNP-induced lipid peroxidation, compared to PC, zinc-PC, and iron-PC. The manganese-PC (1–50 μM) significantly decreased the deoxyribose degradation induced by H2O2 (Fig. 5B), however it was less able to reduce the Fe-induced deoxyribose degradation (Fig. 5A). Additionally, the manganese-PC effect against Fe2+ + H2O2-induced deoxyribose degradation (Fig. 5C) was at the same magnitude Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor as seen for Fe2+ very alone, indicating that manganese-PC interferes with H2O2 without affecting Fe2+ chemistry. In contrast, the copper-PC (1–50 μM) significantly decreased the deoxyribose degradation induced by Fe2+ or H2O2 alone, however, it showed no additional protective effect in the Fenton reaction (Fe2+ + H2O2) (Figs. 6A–C, respectively). In the current study, our research group investigated and clarified the antioxidant properties of four different MPCs and a PC, because of the relevance of these compounds

in the contexts of oxidative stress, disease etiology, and for the progress of medicine (Balentine, 1982 and Ji, 1995). The experiments performed in this study revealed a significant antioxidant capacity of PCs against lipid peroxidation induced by SNP in all tested tissues (Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). Results from the present study showed more significant antioxidant effects in trials using cooper-PC and manganese-PC (Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, respectively). Additionally, lipid peroxidation assays revealed that iron-PC and zinc-PC have less significant antioxidant effects in kidney samples (Fig. 3, respectively) compared with samples of liver and brain (Fig. 2 and Fig. 4, respectively). Thus, we believe that some chemical change should have occurred in the extruded iron-PC and zinc-PC complexes, due to biological metabolism of the kidney enzymes, by mechanisms not yet known.

Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) venom was a gift from Colombo U

Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) venom was a gift from Colombo University, Sri Lanka. Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) venom was purchased from Sigma. Carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) venom was donated by Robert Harrison (Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine). Russell’s viper venom factor X activator toxin (RVVFX) was purchased from Haematologic Technologies Inc. Rabbit anti-snake antibodies were purchased from the West Australian Institute of Medical Research. Hen anti-snake IgY antibodies to P. textilis venom were a gift from Frank Madaras (Venom Science Pty Ltd, South Australia). Australian commercial antivenoms were produced by CSL

Ltd, including brown snake (BSAV; 1000 U), tiger snake (TSAV; 3000 U), black see more snake (BlSAV; 18,000 U), taipan (TAV; 12,000 U) and death adder (DAAV; 6000 U). One unit (1 U) of antivenom activity is defined to be the amount required to bind/neutralise 10 μg of venom from the snake species against which the antivenom is raised. Indian polyvalent antivenom was obtained from VINS Bioproducts (Batch No. 1054 Manufactured 09/2008 Expiry 08/2012).

Indian polyvalent antivenom is raised against four snake venoms – D. russelii, Notechis naja, E. carinatus and Bungarus caeruleus. All commercial antivenoms are of equine origin. Rabbit anti-horse IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidise, goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidise, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) were all purchased from Sigma. All other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Carbonate buffer Regorafenib mouse Oxaprozin is 50 mM, pH 9.5. Blocking solution is 0.5% BSA in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4. Washing solution is 0.02% Tween 20 in PBS.

High binding microplates from Greiner (#655061) were used. Plates were read on a BioTek ELx808 plate reader at 450 nm. All procedures were carried out at room temperature. A known concentration of venom in blocking solution was added to serial dilutions of antivenom in PBS (450 μl), such that the final venom concentration in the mixture was 500, 250, 100, 50 or 0 ng/ml. The mixture was allowed to stand for one hour then applied in triplicate to a microplate as below. Control solutions containing antivenom only were included to allow for subtraction of background absorbance. Plates were coated with anti-snake venom IgG (100 μl, 1 μg/ml in carbonate buffer) for 1 h at room temperature then at 4 °C overnight. They were then washed once, and blocking solution (300 μl) was applied for 1 h. Plates were washed again and the incubated mixture of venom and antivenom (100 μl) was added. After a further hour, the plates were washed three times and a solution of labelled anti-horse IgG (100 μl, 1 μg/ml in blocking solution) was applied.

The Convention on Biological Diversity calls

The Convention on Biological Diversity calls Talazoparib for “effective conservation” of 10 percent of the world’s marine and coastal ecological resources (Convention on Biological Diversity, 1999). Yet, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources reports that just 1.2 percent of global oceans now benefit from some form of protected status, mostly near shore, as MPAs total 4.1 percent within Exclusive Economic Zones (Toropova et al., 2010). Definitions of protected

areas, and levels of effective protection, vary among nations and between the U.S. federal and California government. The current national inventory (Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, 2011) identifies 1681 MPAs in the U.S., with 98% of the total area included

in MPAs under federal jurisdiction and only 3% of the total area in “no take” MPAs. Creation of extensive MPAs by sub-national governments appears to be globally rare and California is the first state in the U.S. to create a scientifically-based, coherent network of MPAs in state waters, including many “no-take” MPAs. While enacting legislation to authorize Androgen Receptor Antagonist a new program, such as redesigning and adaptively managing a network of MPAs, is a difficult and significant task, it is often harder to actually implement such legislation, as impacts on specific places and users intensifies conflicts ( Layzer, 2008). This paper provides an overview of California’s effort to create a statewide network of MPAs between 2004 and 2011 based on the planning work of the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase Marine Life Protection Act Initiative (Initiative), a public–private partnership created to help the state implement the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) enacted in19992 which had six unranked goals (Table 1). The Initiative was launched following two prior unsuccessful efforts to implement the MLPA (Gleason et al., 2010; Weible, 2008). Importantly, the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) creating the Initiative anticipated

dividing the statewide effort into multiple regional planning processes for geographically defined study regions and MPA planning has been completed in four (Fig. 1). The MOU also identified several volunteer bodies to help carry out the Initiative’s charge which were critical for successful implementation of the MLPA. The volunteer bodies included a Blue Ribbon Task Force (BRTF), a Master Plan Science Advisory Team (SAT), and a Regional Stakeholder Group (RSG) for each region of the state, as well as a Statewide Interests Group (SIG) to provide input throughout the process. Only the SAT has statute-based roles; the others existed only on the basis of MOUs. Individuals involved in these volunteer bodies donated hundreds of hours of their time to participate in the planning process (Gleason et al., 2013). Over seven years, $19.5 million from private charitable foundations and approximately $18.

Once deposited in aquatic ecosystems, the spatial distribution of

Once deposited in aquatic ecosystems, the spatial distribution of pathogens, and hence the pattern of risk of infection, depends largely on water movement and water quality parameters that influence particle transport dynamics. In estuaries, climate change is forecasted

to result in altered water mixing patterns due to variability in runoff, leading in turn to changes in salinity gradients and turbidity (Scavia et al., 2002). Some of the same water quality factors that are anticipated to change due to climate variability have also been shown to determine the magnitude of pathogen attachment to aggregates (i.e. “marine snow”). An increase in salinity across water types is associated with increased attachment click here of T. gondii parasites to aggregates; in turn, aggregate-attached parasites experience enhanced vertical flux to the benthos where they can accumulate, and are also rendered more likely to become incorporated into the marine food web ( Shapiro et al., 2012b). Preliminary studies by our research

group further suggest that in addition to T. gondii, other fecal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses can attach to aggregates more readily in waters with higher salinity, as compared with freshwater. Thus, alterations in estuarine mixing dynamics could lead to changes in the spatial distribution of pathogens in zones where fresh and marine waters mix, which are often coastal habitats used for seafood harvest and recreation by humans. The presence of pathogens in marine waters is only a health concern for susceptible hosts if the microbes remain infectious. Persistence of fecal pathogen http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ch5424802.html infectivity in both terrestrial and aquatic environments is closely governed by climatic factors. On land, as pathogens are deposited in fecal matter by terrestrial hosts, factors including temperature, humidity, and UV radiation can affect organisms’ resistance to inactivation. Humid environments and cooler temperatures are generally more favorable for pathogen survival. Conversely, extremes in weather parameters DNA Damage inhibitor including freezing temperatures or

hot and arid environments are less likely to support prolonged viability of most pathogens. In regions where long-term data are available, including the United States, a trend of increasing surface soil moisture was detected (Robock et al., 2000), a climate change that could prolong viability of fecal pathogens sensitive to inactivation by desiccation. In middle and higher latitudes, the duration of time the earth is covered by ice or snow is expected to decline, rendering those environments more hospitable to survival of pathogens that are inactivated by freezing temperatures. Once deposited in marine waters, climate related alterations in seawater quality including temperature, salinity, nutrient availability, and pH could also affect duration of pathogen viability. Exactly how climate change will impact survival and transport of different pathogen classes and species, on land or in the sea, is currently unknown.

, 2009) Expression recognition skills were assessed in the DPs r

, 2009). Expression recognition skills were assessed in the DPs reported here using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, and when compared with appropriate published norming data (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), no deficits were observed. Lower-level vision was also assessed

in order to check whether the participants’ difficulties in face recognition were selleck compound underpinned by basic perceptual impairments. Four sub-tests from the Birmingham Object Recognition Battery (BORB: Humphreys & Riddoch, 1993) that have been used in previous investigations (e.g., Bate, Cook, Mole, & Cole, 2013; Garrido et al., 2009) were selected. In the Length Match test, participants are required to judge whether two lines are of the same length; in the Size Match test they judge whether two circles are of the same size; in the Orientation Match test they decide whether two lines are parallel or not; and in the Position of the Gap Match test they decide whether the position of the gap in two circles is in the

same place or not. Basic object recognition was tested using the Object Decision test from the BORB. In this test, the participant is presented with a series of line drawings which depict C59 wnt cell line animals or tools. In some trials the drawings represent ‘unreal’ objects (i.e., the picture shows half of one object combined with half of another object), and the participant is asked to decide whether each of 128 drawings represents a real or unreal object. Appropriate norming data for these tests are presented within the BORB, and while eight of the DP participants did not show any evidence of lower-level perceptual difficulties, DP7 was impaired on the Length Match test and DP10 was impaired on both the Length Match and Object Decision tests. As described above, this may reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and the possibility that different sub-types of DP exist. Because DP7 and DP10 only performed poorly on one or two of the five sub-tests, any lower-level visual impairments were not deemed to be severe and the participants

were not removed from our sample. Ten FER control participants also participated in this study. They were matched to the DP participants according to age (M = 46.8, SD = 13.2), gender (seven male) and estimated IQ [using the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR): Wechsler, 2001]. All participants reported normal or corrected-to-normal vision. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, medication, significant medical or psychiatric illness, history of substance abuse, and epilepsy. All participants provided written consent and participated on a voluntary basis. The study was approved by the departmental Ethics Committee at Bournemouth University. Face memory task: Two new versions of the CFMT ( Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006) were created for use in this experiment (see Fig. 1A). The CFMT is a measure commonly used to assess facial identity memory ( Richler et al., 2011 and Wilmer et al.