However, as pointed out by Bittencourt and Sawchenko,21 a puzzling issue remains that neuronal activation (in terms of Fos expression) is found #selleck chemicals randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# in nuclei known to be pertinent for eliciting the stress
response (eg, the central nucleus of the amygdala, paraventricular nucleus, nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), ventrolateral medulla, locus ceruleus), but not containing appreciable amounts of either CRHR mRNA expression12,23 or CRH binding.25 A possible explanation may be the occurrence of transsynaptic effects via Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical structures that do contain CRHR1 or CRHR2, but this notion can only be partly satisfactory given the multitude and potency of CRH-induced responses. A mismatch has been found with regard to the localization of Ucn-immunoreactive (ir) fibers and CRHR2 distribution. Brain nuclei expressing highest levels of Ucn mRNA, ie, the
Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW),the lateral olivary nucleus, and the supraoptic nucleus (Figure 1B), mainly project caudally; this Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is in the face of high concentrations of CRHR2 in forebrain areas, such as the BNST, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LS, and VMH.20 However, a Ucn-ir projection stemming from the EW was found terminating in the intermediate lateral septal nucleus (iLS),21 but the projection ended in a region medially localized from the ventrolateral part to which CRHR2 is confined.20 With the recent discovery of the CRHR2-selective ligands Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Ucn II and Ucn III, the issue regarding the localization of the endogenous ligands of forebrain CRHR2 can be addressed. The distribution of Ucn II mRNA is distinctly subcortical, including regions known to be involved in physiological and behavioral responses to stress, such as the PVH (HPA axis and autonomic control26), the locus ceruleus (arousal and anxiety27), and the arcuate nucleus (food intake and energy balance28), and is partly overlapping that of CRH (PVH29) and Ucn (brainstem and spinal motor nuclei) (Figure 1B).20
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Ucn II induces Fos expression in the BNST, PVH, central nucleus of the amygdala, parabrachial nucleus, and NTS, but not in other CRHR2-rich locations, such as the LS, raphe nuclei, and VMH.16 In view of the high affinity of Ucn II for CRHR2, the latter observation was unexpected and a solid explanation is still lacking. The disagreement may indicate the requirement of additional MYO10 factors necessary for activation of the neuron, at least in terms of Fos. Alternatively, these CRHR2-expressing neurons may display activation of signal transduction pathways not ultimately leading to synthesis of Fos. For instance, we have recently found that phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor activated through CRHR1 and CRHR2, is not necessarily correlated with Fos expression (BilangBleuel et al, unpublished data).