In 117 out of 178 adult ROIs (14 ROIs × 13 subjects – 4 ROIs with

In 117 out of 178 adult ROIs (14 ROIs × 13 subjects – 4 ROIs without tool or animal picture-selective voxels), the category preference for words corresponded with the local preference for tool or animal pictures. A sign test revealed that the probability of observing this proportion by chance is p < 0.0001. We therefore LBH589 concentration concluded that the category-selective response patterns for tools and animals in the adult brain were consistent across

stimulus format. In contrast, in both groups of children, the proportion of ROIs with a corresponding category preference words and pictures was at chance level (9- to 10-year-olds: 64 out of 134 ROIs: p = 0.33, 7- to 8-year-olds: 72 out of 144 ROIs: p = 0.53), so, in both younger and older children, selleck inhibitor the local category preference for words and pictures was unrelated. Chi-square tests showed

that adults had significantly higher proportions of areas with picture-like activations for words than the youngest and oldest group of children (overall age difference: χ2 = 12.56, df = 2, p = 0.002; adults vs 9- to 10-year-olds: χ2 = 10.134, df = 1, p = 0.001, adults vs 7- to 8-year-olds: χ2 = 8.13, df = 1, p = 0.004, 9- to 10-year-olds vs 7- to 8-year olds: χ2 = 1.39, df = 1, p = 0.71). We used Chi-square tests rather than ANOVA’s for this age comparison because the measure (whether ROIs show a corresponding category preference for words and for pictures or not)

is categorical. In general, both examined BOLD-related confounds were higher in children than in adults. To test whether between-group differences in BOLD-related confounds could explain the absence of sensorimotor activations for words in children, Clomifene we compared the consistency of category preferences across stimulus format in subgroups of 9 adults and 9 children matched on these confounds (see Section 2 and Appendix B, Table 1). Confound-matched adults showed significantly more areas with a corresponding category preference for words and pictures than confound-matched children (χ2 = 5.54, df = 1, p = 0.019). Moreover, sign tests revealed that the number of areas with a corresponding preference for tool or animal words and pictures was higher than chance-level in adults (p < 0.001) but not in children with similar levels of BOLD confounds (p = 0.235). Thus, the absence of sensorimotor activation when children read familiar words, was not due to BOLD-related confounds. Embodiment theories and research supporting these theories for adults, suggest that printed word meaning is at least partially represented in cortical regions that also process sensorimotor properties of the object categories described by these words (Barsalou, 2008, Fischer and Zwaan, 2008 and Pulvermueller, 2013). During reading training, children learn to extract semantic information from abstract words shapes.

com 5th IDF Symposium on Science & Technology of Fermented Milk 6

com 5th IDF Symposium on Science & Technology of Fermented Milk 6-7 March 2014 Melbourne, Australia Internet: http://dairyscienceconf.com Food Structure and Functionality Forum Symposium 0 From Molecules to Functionality 30 March-2 April 2014 Amsterdam, The Netherlands Internet: www.foodstructuresymposium.com Rapid Methods Europe 31 March-2 April 2014 Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands Internet: www.bastiaanse-communication.com/RME2014 2nd Food Integrity & Traceability Conference 8-10 April 2014 Belfast, N. Ireland Internet: http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/ASSET2014/ 12th International Hydrocolloids Conference 5-9 May 2014 Taipei, Taiwan E-mail: [email protected] Internet: http://www.2014ihc.com/en/index.html SenseAsia – The

Asian Sensory and Consumer Research Symposium 11-13 May 2014 Singapore Internet: ABT-888 datasheet www.senseasia.elsevier.com IFT Annual Meeting and Food Expo 21-24 June 2014 New Orleans, USA Internet: www.ift.org IPC 2014 – International Conference on Probiotics and Prebiotics 24-26 June 2014 Budapest, Hungary Internet: www.probiotic-conference.net American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting 20-24 July 2014 Kansas City, MO, USA Internet: www.adsa.org International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) Congress 27 July-1 PI3K activation August 2014 Montreal, Canada Internet: http://www.montrealiums2014.org/ IUFoST World Congress 17-21 August 2014 Montreal, Canada

Internet: http://iufost2014.org Food Micro 2014 1-4 September 2014 Nantes, France Internet: www.foodmicro2014.org 7th International Whey Conference 7-9 September 2014 Rotterdam, The Netherlands Internet: www.iwc2014.com European Sensory Science Symposium 7-10 September 2014 Copenhagen, Denmark Internet: www.eurosense.elsevier.com IDF World Dairy Summit 24-27 October 2014 Tel Aviv, Israel Internet: www.idfwds2014.com 2nd International Congress on Food Technology 5-7 November 2014 Kusadasi, Turkey Internet: www.intfoodtechno2014.org EFFoST Florfenicol Annual Meeting 12-15 November 2014 Sweden Full-size table Table options View in workspace Download as CSV “
“In the aforementioned

article, the authors noted that typographical errors were submitted in the original manuscript. Data presented for “Barley tea extract” and “Glossing agents” were incorrect. The revised Table 1, reflecting the correct data, is reprinted below. The authors sincerely apologize for this oversight. “
“Event Date and Venue Details from 2012 1st INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BAC-TERIAL DISEASES OF STONE FRUITS AND NUTS 14–17 FebruaryZurich, SWITZERLAND B. Duffy, Agroscope FAW, Schloss, Postfach 185, 8820 Waedenswil, SWITZERLANDE-mail: [email protected] 25th GERMAN CONFERENCE ON WEED BIOLOGY AND CONTROL 13–15 MarchBraunschweig, GERMANY Info: www.unkrauttagung.de 7th INTERNATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM 2012 – March USA, in planning phase E. WolffE-mail: [email protected] 4th EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON THE STANDARDIZED PROCEDURE FOR THE INSPECTION OF SPRAYERS IN EUROPE 27–29 March Lana, ITALY Info: http://tinyurl.

In 2001, he moved his research program to the University of Misso

In 2001, he moved his research program to the University of Missouri (MU) where he was the Gilbreath-McLorn Professor of Comparative Medicine, Director of the Comparative Medicine Center, Director of the Rat Resource and Research Center, and Chairman of the Veterinary Trichostatin A cell line Pathobiology Department. While at MU, he developed

three NIH-funded national animal resource centers which were focused, in large part, on comparative medicine and reproductive cryobiology. In collaboration with other faculty, John was instrumental in establishing the MU Mutant Mouse Resource and Research Center and the Rat Resource and Research Center both of which serve as critical repositories for valuable rodent models. John was also an active participant in establishing a similar resource for swine (National Swine Resource and Research Center). He was responsible for leadership and administration of the core groups involving novel clinical/translational methodologies, translational technologies/resources, and pilot and collaborative translational/clinical

studies. Most recently, Dr. Critser was awarded an R01 component of the Oncofertility U54 program, one of the first funded NIH Roadmap BMS-354825 nmr Initiative projects. Dr. Critser contributed greatly to our Society. He served as our Society President, member of Society Committees, on the Editorial Board of Cryobiology, and Chairman of the Society Annual Conference CRYO1997 and Co-Chair of CRYO2004. Dr. Critser was also a member of many other professional societies and editorial review boards; he was continuously funded by the NIH for over 20 years; and was the past chair of the NIH National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) Comparative Medicine Study Section. Dr. Critser was a well-respected scholar and researcher in the fields of cryobiology, comparative medicine and reproductive biology. He authored or Rucaparib co-authored over 190 publications. His vision and unique ability to forge fruitful and lasting collaborations among individuals with diverse expertise from all over the world were among his notable strengths.

More important to him than any of these other accomplishments, Dr. Critser was proud and passionate about training graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. He mentored more than 30 graduate students and 20 postdoctoral fellows, many of whom are now in professional and leadership roles in the areas of cryobiology, comparative medicine, reproductive biology, molecular biology, engineering, medicine and veterinary medicine. He not only nurtured them during their training but also continued to mentor, help, collaborate and support them as they matured professionally. John Critser was a devoted cryobiologist who contributed significantly to our field. While his career ended abruptly and far too soon, his contributions were reflective of someone with decades more time among us.

However, commercial anti-serum against venomous fish is only avai

However, commercial anti-serum against venomous fish is only available for the stonefish Synanceja trachynis (StoneFish AntiVenom, SFAV), which together with Synanceja verrucosa and Synanceja horrida, are the deadliest fish in the world ( Khoo et al., 1992 and Church and Hodgson, 2001). The similarities between the envenomation symptoms and the pharmacological activities induced by stone- and scorpionfish venoms (Kreger,

1991, Khoo et al., 1992, Garnier et al., 1995, Carrijo et al., 2005 and Gomes et al., 2010), prompted us to investigate whether in vivo cardiovascular and inflammatory activities of S. plumieri venom could be neutralized by SFAV. After injection of S. plumieri venom in hind paw of mice, a local inflammatory lesion, characterized by intense edema and pain, was observed. The intensity and persistence of the edema were dose-dependent. For Ku-0059436 all doses tested, the maximal edematogenic response occurred 30 min after venom injection and it remained significantly elevated over 6, 24 or 72 h Epacadostat solubility dmso according to the dose administered. In addition, we observed a pronounced nociceptive response which reached its maximum at doses ≥15 μg/paw. This local reaction is similar to that observed on human victims of accidents with scorpionfish S. plumieri ( Haddad et al.,

2003). Similar inflammatory responses have also been observed in previous studies with other fish venoms. Magalhães et al. (2006) described that both stingrays Potamotrygon cf. scobina and P. gr. orbignyi venoms induce significant edematogenic activity, which was sustained up to 10 h after injection. Experimental

studies carried out with Thalassophryne nattereri and T. maculosa venoms showed that doses ≤30 μg of venom/paw induce intense edema and nociception ( Lopes-Ferreira et al., 1998 and Sosa-Rosales et al., 2005b). The Scatophagus argus fish venom also produces dose-dependent edema 5-Fluoracil price until 48 h after venom injection ( Sivan et al., 2007). Besides the inflammatory response, S. plumieri venom caused profound alterations on the cardiovascular system in vivo as reported previously ( Carrijo et al., 2005 and Gomes et al., 2010). The cardiovascular response was characterized by a hypertensive response and bradycardia. Both inflammatory and cardiovascular responses induced by SpV were neutralized by SFAV. The same assays were carried out with antibothropic antivenom, which was not able to neutralize the SpV cardiovascular effects, suggesting the SFAV specificity (data not shown). Pre-mixing the S. plumieri venom with the stonefish antivenom resulted in a protective effect, which was achieved at ratios of 1/1 and 1/1.5 μg protein of venom/U of antivenom. This neutralisation activity demonstrates that the pro-inflammatory and cardioactive venom compounds are mainly proteins. These results are in accordance with those of Carlson et al.

g clinically palpable and/or visualized by imaging Anatomical <

g. clinically palpable and/or visualized by imaging. Anatomical Veliparib ic50 clinical concept that needs to be defined before delineation. It contains GTV and/or subclinical disease which should be eliminated. A 3-D expansion of the CTV to account for all the geometrical uncertainties (for target and organ at risk of motion, set up errors delineation and anatomical changes during treatment) (see Fig. 1). Conventional radiotherapy is two-dimensional

(2-D) techniques where AP/PA parallel opposed fields are used to treat the primary tumor and mediastinal LN with a relatively wide margin to account for set up and motion errors due to breathing lung movement. The field borders are usually defined based on the original location of disease and potentially involved lymph nodes. Although such techniques are mostly used for palliative setting, it is not advised to use it for curative approach due to poor results in local control, survival and normal tissue toxicity. Figure 2 and Figure 3 are examples of field arrangements to treat tumors at different locations. AP/PA parallel opposed fields can

be used until a dose of 46 Gy. Then effort to spare the spinal cord should be made while taking the primary tumor and involved LN to full dose of 60 Gy. R1 resection (residual microscopic disease); 54 Gy to bronchial stump. Daily fractionation of 1.8–2 Gy per day. One of the many challenges of lung cancer radiotherapy is conforming radiation to the target due to tumor/organ CSF-1R inhibitor motion and the need to spare surrounding critical structures. Control of local disease using conventional two-dimensional (2-D) radiotherapy planning to a total dose of 60–66 Gy, has been poor (only in 30–50% of cases), and dose escalation

has been associated with increased toxicity, particularly when concurrent chemotherapy is given [3] Three main factors contribute to local treatment failure after radiotherapy: (1) Geographic misses due to inadequacy of imaging tools for staging and radiotherapy planning; Recent developments in radiotherapy are for lung cancer can be summarized by the following points: • Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has been shown to improve targeting accuracy in 25–50% of cases. These new approaches Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase were considered experimental for many years, but recently accumulating evidence of their potential for significantly improving clinical outcomes is leading to their inclusion in standard treatments for lung cancer at major cancer centers [4]. FDG-PET/CT has become an integral component of NSCLC staging because it improves the detection of nodal and distant metastases and frequently alters patient management [5]. Functional imaging is increasingly utilized for treatment planning for patients with NSCLC. Incorporation of FDG PET images into radiation therapy treatment planning resulted in a 15–60% increase or decrease in treated volumes.

Use

Use http://www.selleckchem.com/products/GDC-0980-RG7422.html of

IG biopsy coupled with deformable image registration should permit improved longitudinal sampling [12]. All of the above work could have significant clinical implications, not just for identifying a more effective therapeutic drug target, but also for monitoring treatment response. Identifying molecular targets with specific imaging markers should lead to development of better chemotherapeutic agents with less toxicity. Early detection of a favorable response or failure of a treatment regimen using combined imaging and genomic markers could potentially help expedite drug approval, generating substantial cost savings for clinical trials. Mouse and human-in-mouse selleck compound models of malignancies (e.g., patient-derived xenografts, transgenic) are routinely used for drug efficacy and toxicity testing [49] and [50].

The mouse model research strategies prove to be promising for understanding biological factors in prediction and response to therapy, as direct access to tissues during longitudinal studies is possible. In addition, a growing body of evidence shows that reliable preclinical data can be merged with patient data and used to determine what therapy may be used to treat specific malignancies [51]. This newer approach to integrated cross-species testing, termed co-clinical trials, involves concurrent assessment of novel drug combinations in mouse and human-in-mouse models of tumors, and in patients with recurrent or metastatic disease with whom the mice are genotypically matched [52] and [53]. Recent published literature demonstrates that well-documented, integrated cross-species approaches are of value for clinical decision making [54]. Radiogenomics will clearly play an important role in co-clinical trial studies where imaging phenotypes will be correlated with genomics

signatures. A powerful component of both pre- and co-clinical testing is the use of various in vivo imaging modalities that either mirror medical imaging practices or provide additional biological information [52], [53] and [55]. Imaging is a key to success in co-clinical NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase investigations, providing real-time monitoring of the animal subjects for response, disease progression, recurrence, or metastasis, and ready access to longitudinal tissue samples for genomic analysis using image guidance. The evolving pre- and co-clinical approaches require development and incorporation of data and semantic standards to ensure reliability of interpretation and use of research resources such as data archiving and the implementation of quality improvement methods as reviewed later.

So, understanding the changes in the reproductive biology of snai

So, understanding the changes in the reproductive biology of snails infected with A. cantonensis HIF cancer is essential for developing effective methods against the spread of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. However, it is surprising that studies of the reproductive activity of A. cantonensis-infected snails

have not yet been conducted, since this parasite has great importance to public health and the response to infection is highly variable among snail species infected by different helminths ( Tunholi et al., 2011). To shed light on this subject, the present study analyzed for the first time, the changes in the reproductive biology of Biomphalaria glabrata caused by infection by A. cantonensis during its prepatent period (3 weeks of infection) ( Guilhon and Gaalon, 1969), using the parameters total number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs/mass, number of eggs/snail, percentage of viable eggs, and galactogen content in albumen gland, as well as the histological status of the gonad (ovotestis of infected snails). The different mechanisms possibly related to this phenomenon are also discussed. The snails were kept in aquariums containing 1500 ml of dechlorinated water, to which 0.5 g of CaCO3 was added. Polystyrene plates measuring ±2 cm2 were placed inside the aquariums to serve as substrate for egg laying. The snails were fed with dehydrated lettuce leaves

(Lactuca sativa L.) ad this website libitum. Six groups were formed: three control groups (uninfected) and three treatment groups (infected). Each aquarium contained 10 snails, reared Ceramide glucosyltransferase in the laboratory from hatching to be certain of their age and sexual maturity. The entire experiment was conducted in duplicate, using a total of 120 snails. Third-stage larvae (L3) of A. cantonensis, obtained

from specimens of Achatina fulica collected from Olinda, Pernambuco, Brazil (8°1′0″S/34°51′0″W, altitude 16 m) in 2008, in the area surrounding the home of a human patient diagnosed with eosinophilic meningoencephalitis, were inoculated in Rattus norvegicus in the Laboratório Nacional de Referência em Malacologia Médica and Laboratório de Patologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, RJ, Brazil), where the cycle is maintained. The first-stage larva (L1) utilized in this study were obtained from this experimental cycle maintained in the mentioned laboratories. The feces of parasitized R. norvergicus were collected to obtain the larvae by the technique of Baermann ( Willcox and Coura, 1989). After processing the fecal samples, specimens of B. glabrata (8–12 mm) at 90 days old on average were exposed individually to approximately 1200 L1 larvae ( Yousif and Lammler, 1977). After 48 h the snails were transferred to the aquariums. The polystyrene plates were removed from the aquariums and the numbers of egg masses and eggs laid were counted under a stereoscopic microscope on alternate days until three weeks after infection.

Then, the local health authority must report these cases to the n

Then, the local health authority must report these cases to the next level of the organization within 24 h.23 Therefore, it is believed that the degree of compliance in disease notification over the study period was consistent. The Yearbooks of Meteorological Disasters in check details China recorded the occurrence, deaths, damage area and economic loss of floods in detail from 2004 to 2009.24 According to the Yearbooks of

Meteorological Disasters in China, there were seven times of floods recorded in Kaifeng and Xinxiang from 2004 to 2009, which was less than that of Zhengzhou with nine times of floods. Flooding per se would be a variable depending on the quantitation over a shorter period time than a month. But in our study, we analyzed monthly data to assess the effects of floods on the find more dysentery disease on the basis of a time series data from 2004 to 2009, which included flooded months, non-flooded months, pre-flooded and post-flooded months, and the same period over other years, so monthly data would estimate the effects of floods well. Demographic data were obtained from the Center

for Public Health Science Data in China (http://www.phsciencedata.cn/). Monthly meteorological data were obtained from the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System (http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/). The meteorological variables included monthly cumulative precipitation (MCP), monthly average temperature (MAT), monthly average relative humidity (MARH) and monthly cumulative sunshine duration (MCSD). Firstly, a descriptive analysis was performed to describe the distribution

of dysentery SPTLC1 cases and meteorological factors between the flooded and nonflooded months through the Kruskal–Wallis H test. Spearman correlation was adopted to examine the association between floods, climatic variables and the morbidity of dysentery with various lagged values in each city. The lagged value with the maximum correlation coefficient for each climate variable was selected for inclusion in the subsequent regression models. According to the reproducing of pathogen and the incubation period of dysentery disease, a time lag of 0–2 months was considered in this study.25 The widely used generalized additive models (GAM) method is a flexible and effective technique for conducting nonlinear regression analysis in time-series studies with a Poisson regression.26 GAM allows this Poisson regression to be fit as a sum of nonparametric smooth functions of predictor variables. The purpose of GAM is to maximize the predictive quality of a dependent variable, “Y” from various distributions by estimating archetypical function of the predictor variables that connected to the dependent variable. In time-series studies of air pollution and mortality, GAM has been the most widely applied method, because it allows for nonparametric adjustment for nonlinear confounding effects of seasonality, trends, and weather variables.

CEF-specific responses were rarely observed in the female genital

CEF-specific responses were rarely observed in the female genital tract ex vivo, with dual PMA/Ionomycin- and CEF-specific responses detectable in the CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations of only 2/18 and 1/18 women respectively ( Table 4). Interestingly, the odds of detecting a response to CEF was generally higher in cervical T cells subjected to delayed processing ( Table 2). Even so, the magnitudes of PMA/Ionomycin-specific IFN-γ responses were consistently higher than CEF-specific NVP-BKM120 ic50 responses in the cervical T cells ( Fig. 4). Despite the finding that delayed processing did not

reduce T cell responses to PMA/Ionomycin compared to cells processed immediately, the magnitude of IFN-γ responses to CEF by cells held at 37 °C for 24 h was significantly higher than cells processed immediately (p < 0.001 for CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; Fig. 4). This result was similar in the blood for CD8+

T cells (p = 0.04), and was observed as a trend in the CD4+ population (p = 0.08; data not shown). These observations suggest that cervical T cell responses to viral antigens may be best detected when samples are transported at 37 °C rather than at the other conditions tested. CYC202 concentration It is widely accepted that understanding T cell-mediated immunity to HIV in the female genital tract is important in devising prevention strategies to combat the epidemic (Abdool Karim et al., 2010, Hasselrot, 2009, Hladik and McElrath, 2008 and Shattock et al., 2008). Despite the recognised importance of incorporating mucosal testing of HIV vaccine-induced responses, PAK6 mucosal sampling typically yields few cells and most analyses that have been performed were carried out ex vivo in laboratories close to the clinics from which samples were obtained ( McElrath et al., 2008 and Karim et al., 2010). Since HIV vaccine efforts involve

clinical sites around the globe, it is important to thoroughly evaluate and understand the robustness of cellular responses from currently available mucosal samples and the feasibility of cryopreservation or delayed processing of such specimens. We and others have previously shown that cervical cytobrushing provides a useful means of obtaining mononuclear cells from the female genital tract for ex vivo measurement of HIV-specific T cell responses ( Cohen et al., 2010, Gumbi et al., 2008, Kaul et al., 2000, Kaul et al., 2003, Liebenberg et al., 2010, Musey et al., 2003, Nkwanyana et al., 2009, Quayle et al., 2007 and Shacklett et al., 2000). Here we have investigated whether cervical T cells, obtained by cytobrushing, could be subjected to delayed processing or cryopreservation without loss of cell number, viability or function. We found that cervical cytobrushes processed immediately yielded a median of 65 416 CD3+ T cells with a median viability of 99.95%. Neither CD3 T cell recovery nor viability was significantly different between cytobrushes subjected to a delayed processing compared to those processed immediately.

Non-vertebral anti-fracture reduction is 20 to 30%, less than hal

Non-vertebral anti-fracture reduction is 20 to 30%, less than half the vertebral fracture risk reduction reported in most trials [44]. One explanation may be the differing access of drugs to intracortical remodeling sites initiated upon Haversian canals within the large cortical matrix volume [4] and [34]. Risedronate has a lower

mineral binding affinity than alendronate and penetrates deeper into cortical bone [4] and [34]. Risedronate reduced non-vertebral fracture rates selleck compound in two of the three main trials [45], [46] and [47], while alendronate did not [48] and [49]. Nakamura et al. reported that in a 24-month study of 1194 postmenopausal Japanese women and men (placebo, n = 480; denosumab 60 mg every 6 months, n = 472; or open-label alendronate 35 mg weekly, n = 242) [50], new or worsening vertebral fractures occurred Sotrastaurin in 8.5%, 2.4%, and 5.0% of women, respectively (p = 0.0001 denosumab versus placebo). Major non-vertebral fractures occurred in 3.9%, 1.7%, and 2.3% of women, respectively (p = 0.057, denosumab versus placebo). Thus, numerically, fewer fractures occurred in the denosumab than alendronate group but statistical analyses comparing the two antiresorptives was not reported. Moreover, women treated with denosumab in the pivotal phase 3 trial, although a placebo comparator arm was not available in the 4th and 5th years, had a low reported non-vertebral fracture rate, an observation not

reported for alendronate or zoledronic acid, the latter also having high affinity for bone mineral [51]. This study has limitations. StrAx1.0 analysis does not quantify pore size and number so that the relative contribution of reductions in pore number versus pore size to the reduction in porosity cannot be determined at this time. Measures of porosity using StrAx1.0 are more sensitive than measures of density to motion artifacts and this resulted in loss of some images. In summary, this is the first randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial comparing the effect of two remodeling suppressant therapies on intracortical porosity in vivo. Denosumab reduced Unoprostone remodeling more rapidly, more completely and decreased porosity more than alendronate.

Given the exponential relationship between porosity and bone stiffness, partly reversing cortical porosity is likely to contribute to reductions in fracture risk. Whether this greater reduction in porosity translates into better anti-fracture efficacy will require additional comparator trials. This study was funded by Amgen Inc. RM Zebaze has received grant and/or research support from Amgen and speaker fees from Servier. RM Zebaze is one of the inventors of the StrAx1.0 algorithm and a director of Straxcorp. C Libanati is an employee of Amgen and has received Amgen stock or stock options. M Austin is an employee of Amgen and has received Amgen stock or stock options. A Ghasem-Zadeh is one of the inventors of the StrAx1.0 algorithm.