This is a retrospective chart review with convenience sampling of patients on NSAIDs (at least five tablets a
week, for at least 3 months prior to the study), attending the Rheumatology clinic of a tertiary care institution in south India between June 2004 and November 2004. Those with pre-existing heart disease, hypertension, thrombo-embolic disease, peptic Ipatasertib ulcer and patients on corticosteroids were excluded. All the recorded adverse events were noted and compared between the Celecoxib and non-selective NSAID users. Univariate analysis using Chi-square test was performed. Of the 1387 patients included, 915 were on Celecoxib. In the NSAID group, 204 had used multiple NSAIDs in sequence. Of the Celecoxib users, 164 had switched over to an NSAID during the study period. New onset of hypertension was significantly higher in the Celecoxib users as compared to non-selective NSAID users (3.06% vs. 1.27%, P = 0.04). However, those who had switched over to NSAIDs
did not show this trend. NSAID users, on the other hand, had significant gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity (2.54% vs. 0.327%, P = 0.001). A significant number of Celecoxib users who switched over to NSAIDs also developed GI toxicity (6.1% vs. 1.21%, P = 0.018) over a shorter time span, as compared to the continuous NSAID users. Multiple NSAID users had higher adverse events (6.37% vs. 2.23%, P = 0.023) as compared to single NSAID users. Celecoxib significantly increased the incidence of new onset hypertension in this cohort of Indian patients with rheumatic diseases. No thromboembolic events were documented. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs MK-8669 price (NSAIDs) are widely acclaimed for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. The non-selective NSAIDs act by inhibiting both isoforms of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).
COX-2 inhibition is mainly responsible for anti-inflammatory actions and COX-1 inhibition leads to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase The hypothesis that selective inhibition of COX-2 isoform may help in reducing pain and inflammation without compromising the gastric mucosa led to discovery of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. Celecoxib was developed first in this group and was found to possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy comparable to the non-selective NSAIDs in treatment of inflammatory arthritic conditions. In view of their gastrointestinal safety profile, within a short span of time COX-2 inhibitors gained popularity over non-selective NSAIDs. However, COX-2 inhibition reduces vascular prostacyclin (PGI2) production, thus affecting the balance between prothrombotic and anti-thrombotic eicosanoids. This property can tip the balance in favor of prothrombotic eicosanoids, which can lead to increased cardiovascular thrombotic events. Serious concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of Rofecoxib were expressed following the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR) study.